A solar cycle It is a span of 11 years during which the amount of spots, bursts and solar bumps vary.
Of the pairs of sunspots of the northern hemisphere, the spot that guides its partner in the direction of rotation has a magnetic field in the opposite direction to that of the dominant sunspot of the southern hemisphere. When a new 11-year cycle begins, the direction of the magnetic field of the dominant sunspots of each hemisphere is reversed.
Thus, the complete solar cycle including the polarity of the magnetic field lasts about 22 years. In addition, sunspots usually occur at the same latitude in each hemisphere. This latitude varies from 45 to 5 ° during the sunspot cycle.
Since each sunspot lasts at most a few months, the 22-year solar cycle reflects the settled and long-lasting processes in the Sun and not the properties of individual sunspots. Although not fully understood, the solar cycle phenomena seem to be the result of the interactions of the Sun's magnetic field with the convection zone in the outer layers.
In addition, these interactions are affected by the rotation of the Sun, which is not the same at all latitudes. The Sun rotates once every 27 days near the equator, but once every 31 days closer to the poles.
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