They are jets of gas from the solar chromosphere that ascend thousands of kilometers above the limbus, to fall after a short interval of time.
Large-scale turbulence in the convection zone pushes much of the magnetic field above the photosphere toward the ends of the supergranulation cells. The radiation of the layer that is exactly above the photosphere, called the chromosphere, follows this model clearly. Within the supergranular limits, jets of matter are launched in the chromosphere at an altitude of 4,000 km in 10 minutes.
The so-called spicules are produced by the combination of turbulence and magnetic fields at the ends of supergranular molecules.
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