The planet Venus, the second that is from the Sun, is the closest to Earth; It is similar to our planet by both dimensions and weight and density. But despite its proximity to us, it is not possible to observe its surface, because a thick and impenetrable cloud system constantly envelops it.
Venus is the brightest object in the sky, after the Sun and the Moon: under the most favorable conditions it reaches the magnitude of - 4.3 and can be seen in broad daylight.
Being an inner planet to the Earth's orbit, Venus appears in the sky in the vicinity of the Sun, with respect to which it goes as far as possible (at the time of the Elongations) by about 47 degrees. It is visible both in the morning, before sunrise, and at night, immediately after sunset.
Venus has a diameter of 12,100 km., A little smaller than the Earth, its mass is 4.87 x 10 raised to 24 kg., That is 0.8 to 1 with respect to our planet, and the average density of 5.25 g / cm3, just below the terrestrial that is 5.52.
The planet revolves around the Sun in an almost circular orbit (e = 0.0068) at an average distance of 108,210,000 km., Using 224.7 days to make a complete turn. The orbit is inclined in 3 degrees 24 minutes with respect to the ecliptic (plane of the Earth's orbit). The Venusian day is extremely long: to make a rotation around its own axis, the planet uses 243.1 days and the direction of this rotation is retrograde.
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