The meteorology It is the science that deals with the phenomena that occur in the short term in the lower layers of the atmosphere, that is, where the life of plants and animals develops.
Meteorology studies the atmospheric changes that occur at all times, using parameters such as air temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind or precipitation.
The objective of the meteorology is to predict the weather it will do in 24 or 48 hours and, to a lesser extent, to prepare a medium-term weather forecast.
The climatology It is the science that studies the climate and its variations over time. Although it uses the same parameters as meteorology, its objective is different, since it is not intended to make immediate forecasts, but to study the long-term climatic characteristics.
Climate is the set of meteorological phenomena that characterize the usual or most probable conditions of a given point on the earth's surface. It is, therefore, a series of statistical values.
For example, although a storm with abundant precipitation may eventually occur in a desert, its climate is still desert, since the probability That this happens is very low.
Meteorology and climatology study the atmosphere from various perspectives. On the one hand, they describe the general conditions of the weather in a specific area and time. On the other, they investigate the behavior of large air masses in order to establish general laws regarding their influence on other factors. Finally, they analyze each of these particular factors (temperature, pressure, humidity ...) in order to discover the laws that govern them and to be able to make an accurate weather forecast.
The meteorology has several practical applications, in addition to the obvious ones. For example, aeronautical meteorology specializes in everything that affects air traffic; the agrarian meteorology tries to predict the suitable conditions for the different agricultural labors; Medical meteorology studies the influence of atmospheric factors on human health.
The weather map that we can see in the newspaper or on television is the result of centuries of experience. Initially they were simple annotations about meteorological phenomena observed in different places.
Over time they were perfected. The invention of various measuring devices (hygrometer, thermometer, barometer, anemometer ...) proliferated the emergence of meteorological stations and organizations, regionally, nationally and internationally, responsible for collecting and organizing data.
The real breakthrough came, however, in the twentieth century, with the launching of meteorological satellites equipped with increasingly sophisticated photographic and analytical instruments. The computer science has contributed enormously to this advance, since the computers are able to process a lot of data in a short time and to elaborate climatic and forecast models.
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