The navigation performed between the stars is called astronautics, that is, performed outside the Earth. It is also known as cosmonautics, since it is also performed in the cosmos.
The astronautic term has been used more in the west, hence the crews of western spacecraft are known as astronauts, while in the former USSR they were known as cosmonauts, or cosmos navigators.
When considering the possibility of leaving the Earth's atmosphere, both to orbit around the Earth and to navigate in the cosmos, the force of gravity must always be kept in mind. Gravity is the force that maintains the cohesion of the universe and that governs its mechanics. Vehicles or artifacts that fly through space are no stranger to this force.
In the second half of the 20th century, the necessary means and knowledge were obtained to build ships capable of overcoming Earth's gravity and traveling through Space.
In this chapter:The parents of Astronautics: Romanian Hermann Julius Oberth, Russian Konstantin Tsiolkovsky and American Robert Goddard ... Read pageThe race to the moon: The year 1955 was crucial for spaceflight. Proclaimed by the international scientific community ... Read pageThe NASA Mercury Project: Three days after the Soviets will launch their first satellite, Sputnik 1, the States ... Read pageThe NASA Gemini Program: In 1965, two years later At the end of the Mercury Project, NASA launched the Gemini Program ... Read pageThe Apollo program: In July 1960, before the end of the Gemini Program, NASA announced the launch of the ... Read pageArriving to the Moon: July 20, 1969. On the screens of the televisions connected by Mundovision with space, they are going to ... Read pageThe Russian program Soyuz: Under the name Soyuz, which in Russian means union, the ships and rockets of a program… Read page Space probes: A space probe is an artificial instrument that is sent to space to study the different… Read page The International Space Station. The Project: The International Space Station is the most ambitious space project since ... Read pageConstruction of the International Space Station: In 1992 there is a fundamental advance in the approach between ... Read page Space shuttles: With the name of space shuttle or space shuttle Meet the manned transport ships… Read page Japan at the Astronautics: Japanese astronautics has been running since the late 1960s. Its modest program… Read page The Chinese space program: The Chinese launched their first gunpowder rockets in the third century BC However, in the race ... Read pageThe Voyager-1 leaves the Solar System: After being launched into space 36 years ago, the Voyager 1 space probe has achieved its ... Read pageThe Sunjammer heading for the Sun: The Sunjammer solar sail is a project space launched by scientists at Imperial College of… Read Page