History

The parents of the Astronautics

The parents of the Astronautics

Romanian Hermann Julius Oberth, Russian Konstantin Tsiolkovsky and American Robert Goddard are considered the parents of astronautics. They never collaborated together, but between the three they established the theoretical and practical bases necessary for the birth and subsequent development of current astronautics.

In order to understand how the current astronautics have been reached, we have to go back to the 19th century. Scientists like Tsiolkovsky, Oberth and Goddard inspired with their studies and experiments the design of the great programs of modern astronautics. Do not forget the role of the Peruvian Pedro Paulet, which in turn served as a point of reference for the previous three.

Konstantin Tsiolkovsky

The theories of physicist Konstantin Tsiolkovsky were recorded in his 1903 book "The exploration of cosmic space by jet apparatus." It ensured that only spacecraft powered by liquid fuel rockets could be used to explore space.

In fact, the principles set forth in that book were the responsible of the launching of the first Russian artificial satellite and the rocket that took cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin into space.

Robert Goddard

For his part, the American scientist Robert Hutchings Goddard published in 1919 his book "Method to reach extreme altitudes".

Based on his method, in 1926 he designed, manufactured and launched one of the first rocket models with liquid fuel. This did not exceed 12 meters high.

Much of his work was reviled during his life, although he was later recognized as one of those responsible for modern astronautics.

Hermann Julius Oberth

The top work of physicist Hermann Julius Oberth was "The rockets in interplanetary space", from 1923. In this book the principles of modern astronautics were established.

Six years later, Oberth launched his first liquid fuel rocket, called Kegeldüse. Several students of the Technical University of Berlin collaborated in it. One of them was Wernher von Braun, who later became director of NASA. Von Braun was also responsible for the design of the V-22 rocket, and designed the Saturn V rocket that took the man to the Moon in the Apollo spacecraft.

Pedro Emilio Paulet Mostajo

Special mention must be made to the Peruvian engineer Pedro Emilio Paulet Mostajo. For the scientist Wernher von Braun he was the true father of modern astronautics.

Paulet designed a spaceship consisting of an aluminum sphere with a steel interior propelled by jet rockets.

Tsiolkovsky, Goddard and Oberth both used Paulet's prototype designs to develop their own ships and engines.

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