Isaac Newton was responsible for shedding light on Kepler's laws. For this he developed new mathematical methods, such as differential calculus and integral calculus. In this way I can work with varying amounts, such as the distance or speed of the planets around the sun.
Thanks to the application of these new calculations to Kepler's theories, Newton deduced that the planets move around the Sun under the influence of a force called gravity. Thus arose his famous theory: "between two bodies there is a reciprocal gravitational force, which is proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them."
With the law of Universal Gravitation and the application of new mathematical methods, Newton was able to explain the principles reasoned by Kepler. It was established that all material bodies, and not only planets, have a gravitational force of attraction. This force served to explain other phenomena hitherto unknown, such as that the orbit of an object around the sun could not only be circular, also an ellipse, a parabola or a hyperbole.
Isaac Newton unified the celestial and terrestrial dynamics. He said that the orbit of a celestial object around the sun always depends on the energy that the object possesses. From this he deduced that objects with low energy, such as planets, move with circular or elliptical orbits around the sun. On the other hand, objects that have a large amount of energy, such as comets, can have parabolic orbits.
All the great contributions of Isaac Newton to celestial mechanics were collected in his work "Philosophia Naturalis Principia Mathematica"(The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy), considered one of the most important works in the history of science.
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