Pythagoras is said to be the first pure mathematician and also one of the first astronomers whose information is available. He lived between 569 to 475 B.C., in Samos, and dedicated his life to the study of science, philosophy, mathematics and music.
He was adequately educated studying lyre, poetry and recited Homer. The philosophers who influenced his thinking were Thales and Anaximander, both of Miletus. Thales contributed to the mathematical and astronomical interest. On his recommendation he traveled to Egypt to study with Anaximander and, years later, returned to Miletus.
In the war of Egypt against Persia, he was arrested and sent to Babylon, where he perfected his knowledge in arithmetic and music. About 520 B.C. He returned to Samos. In this city he created a school called the semicircle, where political meetings were held.
He traveled to southern Italy around 518 BC. It is believed that this trip was made by escaping political commitments he had acquired in his semicircle meetings. He founded a school in Crotone that became a partially religious, scientific and philosophical association, which relied on the immortality of the soul and the doctrine of reincarnation.
His education system was based on gymnastics, mathematics and music. The Pythagoreans believed that the known world could be explained from mathematics. His followers were called mathematikoi. They were vegetarians and had no personal possessions, although there were also others who had their own home and were not vegetarians. Men and women were received.
In his school he wondered that the deepest level of reality is mathematical in nature. They believed that philosophy can be used for spiritual purification, that the soul can rise to unite with the divine and that certain symbols have mystical significance. All the brothers of the order had to observe strict secrecy and loyalty.
He was interested in the concept of number, triangle and other mathematical figures, as well as the abstract idea of testing. In this way he gave the numbers an abstract value that can be applied to many circumstances. He argued that all relationships could be reduced to numerical relationships and that vibrating strings have harmonious tones when the ratio of their lengths are whole numbers.
At the moment it is remembered a lot for his Theorem: "For a right triangle, the square of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of its legs."
In astronomy, I propose three Paradigms:
1.- The planets, the Sun, the moon and the stars move in perfect circular orbits.
2.- The speed of the stars is perfectly uniform.
3.- The Earth is in the exact center of the celestial bodies.
These paradigms were followed faithfully by his disciples Plato and Socrates, and meant the starting point of geocentric theories. He also recognized that the moon's orbit was tilted and was one of the first to establish that Venus is the same morning and afternoon star.
He went to Delos around 513 B.C. to take care of his friend Phekerides, who was sick. After his death he returned to Crotone. This city was invaded by the Sybarites and it was rumored that he was involved in this attack. In 508 BC the Pythagorean society was attacked by Cylon, so he fled to Metaponte, where he died years later without knowing its cause.
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