Pierre de Fermat was a French jurist and mathematician who was born in Beaumont-de-Lomagne on August 17, 1601 and died in Castres on January 12, 1665. In fact, along with Rene Descartes, was one of the most important mathematicians of the first half of the seventeenth century.
Thus, Pierre de Fermat was the one who discovered the differential calculus long before Newton and Leibniz. He was also co-founder, along with Blaise Pascal, of probability theory and, likewise, discovered the fundamental principle of analytical geometry.
Despite all this, Pierre de Fermat was best known for the contributions he made to the theory of numbers, thanks to the famous Fermat Theorem. This theorem was one of the main problems of mathematicians for more than 350 years, until Andrew Wiles, with the help of Richard Taylor, proved it in 1995 based on the Shimura - Taniyama Theorem.
Thus, the one known as the last Fermat Theorem (UTF) appeared as a side note of an edition of The Arithmetic of the Greek Diofanto. This came to say that it is not possible to convert a cube into the sum of two other cubes, a bicuadrado in two bicuadrados and, in general, any power, apart from the square, in other two powers of the same exponent.
In other words, it could be stated as follows: if n is an integer greater than 2, then there are no positive integers x, y and z with which equality is met:
xn + yn = zn
Thus, Fermat's Theorem was unresolved for more than three centuries until Andrew Wiles was able to prove that theorem in 1995, a relatively recent date, using various mathematical tools that emerged long after Fermat's death.
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