Astronomy

Has this image of the Draco Constellation been altered

Has this image of the Draco Constellation been altered



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Have the stars in this photo of the Draco Constellation been magnified so as to help me see the Draco or not?

Also I really like [this image][2] of Orion; if someone knows of a site with a lot of such images that are in a user friendly, easy-to-find format, I would appreciate it.


The image of Draco has definitely been altered. Most of the stars in Draco are quite faint, even the ones making the dragon shape, whereas in the image they are all shown as bigger/brighter than the stars in Ursa Minor (the quadrilateral in the middle with 3 stars trailing down to the lower left. The last of the 3 is polaris, which is in reality brighter than all the stars in Draco.

The same is true for Kocab.

The image of Orion is typical of probably thousands taken by amateur astronomers. If you want to find others, try a search engine. There may be some specific sites that collect all or most of the constellations, but I'm not aware of them.


Draco's stars are not very bright. The head of the dragon consists of four stars (Beta, Gamma, Nu and Xi Draconis) in a trapezoid and located just north of Hercules. From there, the dragon's body winds its way through the sky, ending between the Big Dipper and Little Dipper. From early to mid-October, a meteor shower known as the Draconids appears to radiate from Draco's head.

Other stars in the constellation include Thuban (Alpha Draconis), which forms the tail. Because Earth wobbles on its axis (called precession), Thuban was the pole star around 2600 B.C. when the ancient Egyptians were building the pyramids.

Draco consists of several double stars, including Eta Draconis and 20 Draconis.

The Cat's Eye Nebula is also contained within the constellation. [Gallery: Strange Nebula Shapes, What Do You See?]

The constellation encompasses several faint galaxies, including the Draco Dwarf Galaxy, one of the least luminous galaxies with a diameter of about 3,500 light years.

A handful of exoplanets have been found in Draco so far, such as:

  • Kepler-10b (around the star Kepler-10), which was the smallest rocky Earth-sized planet detected outside of the solar system when it was announced in 2011. [Kepler Reveals Lots of Planets: Some Habitable?]
  • Kepler-10c, which has the same parent star, was nicknamed "the Godzilla of Earths" after it was announced in 2014. This is because the rocky world has a mass that is 17 times that of Earth, making it likely to be more of a "mini-Neptune" than a "super-Earth," with a thick gaseous envelope.
  • A Jupiter-sized planet called TrES-2b was announced in 2011, and found orbiting the sun-like star GSC 03549-02811. The star only reflects about 1 percent of the light that falls on it, and was classified the darkest planet yet found at the time of its discovery.

Has this image of the Draco Constellation been altered - Astronomy

  • The Draco constellation never sets below the horizon, as a result it is visible all year in the Northern hemisphere.
  • Constellations that don't set are known as circumpolar constellations.
  • Draco is one of five circumpolar constellations in the Northern hemisphere.
  • The constellation of Draco is only partially visible in some northerly regions of the Southern hemisphere during the winter months.
  • Despite being one of the largest constellations it is not particularly noticable in the night sky due to the dimness of most of its stars.
  • Draco is Latin for dragon.
  • A small galaxy known as the Draco Dwarf exists within the constellation, it's a satellite of our own galaxy, the Milky Way.
  • The Cat's Eye Nebula is also situated within the boundaries of the Draco constellation.
  • Draco was one of the original constellations catalogued by the Greco-Roman astronomer Ptolemy in the 2nd century.

From January to March the constellation will first appear low in the horizon in a northerly direction at around 6 pm, as the night progresses it will become higher in the night sky before disappearing at day break around 7 am.

From July to September the constellation will be visible almost directly overhead at around 10 pm, it will gradually move lower towards the horizon in a north-westerly direction before day breaks around 5 am.

From October to December it will appear high in the sky in the north-west at around 6 pm, by 2 am it will be almost directly north and low on the horizon, by day break the constellation will be in a north-easterly direction.

Draco is only partially visible in the months of July to September, it will be appear low on the horizon in a northerly direction at around 7 pm, it will remain low on the horizon before disappearing below it at around midnight to 4 am depending on the month.


Star Constellation Facts: Draco

Draco depicts a dragon, with the creature’s head located just north of the constellation Hercules, and its tail ending between the The Big and Little Dippers in Ursa Major and Ursa Minor respectively. It takes up an area of 1,083 square degrees of the celestial globe, making it the 8th largest constellation in the night sky, and being circumpolar is visible to northern hemisphere observers right through the year. The constellation can also be seen from latitudes as far south as -15 degrees. The brightest star in Draco is an orange giant called Etamin situated 154 light years away and shining with a magnitude of 2.36.

Ursa Major Family of Constellations

Draco is a member of the Ursa Major family of constellations, together with the constellations Coma Berenices, Boötes, Camelopardalis, Canes Venatici, Corona Borealis, Leo Minor, Lynx, Ursa Major and Ursa Minor.

Although Draco has several associated legends, perhaps the most famous is the Greek myth in which it represents Ladon, the dragon tasked by Hera with guarding the golden apples in the Garden of the Hesperides. The apples in the orchard were grown from the wedding gift given to Hera and Zeus by the goddess Gaia, and were said to bestow immortality upon anyone who ate them. For his 11th Labor, Hercales was tasked with stealing three Golden Apples from the fiersome hundred headed dragon that guarded the garden.

Meteor Showers

Only one meteor shower, the Draconids, is associated with the constellation, and is the result of the Earth travelling through the dust trail left behind by the comet 21 P/ Giacobini-Zinner. The Draconids, which is also sometimes known as the Giacobinids, is active in October, and usually peaks around 7th/8th when 10-20 meteors per hour can be seen. Although this shower is usually described as unspectacular, it does produce the occasional outburst in activity when the Earth passes through the cometary debris stream’s denser regions. In 1933 and 1946, for instance, thousands of meteors per hour were observed, while as recently as 2011 European stargazers witnessed more than 600 meteors per hour.

Principal Stars

– Etamin (Gamma Draconis), the constellation’s brightest star, is an orange giant situated 154 light years distant with a visual magnitude of 2.36. It is also referred to as the Zenith star because it lies almost directly overhead as seen from London. Etamin is 72% more massive than the Sun, 471 times more luminous, and may have a red dwarf companion orbitting it at a distance of around 1000 AU. Another notable feature of Etamin is the fact that its proper motion will bring it to within 28 light years of Earth in about 1.5 million years, which will make it as bright as Sirius is today- if we were around to see it. Etamin derives its name from the Arabic for “great serpent”, and can be seen north-north-west of the bright stars Vega in the constellation of Lyra.

– Aldibain (Eta Draconis), the second brightest star in Draco, is a yellow-white giant located 92 light years from our solar system of magnitude 2.73. Aldibain is around 550 million years old, and has about 2.5 times our sun’s mass, but 60 times its luminosity. It is seperated from a physical companion by a distance of 140 AU, which has an orbital period of at least 1,000 years.

– Rastaban (Beta Draconis), the constellation’s third brightest star, is a binary system found 380 light years away with an apparent magnitude of 2.79. Its main component is a yellow supergiant (G2) six times as massive as our sun, 40 times as big, and a spectacular 950 times as bright. The other component is a dwarf star seperated by 450 AU that takes more than 4,000 years to make a complete orbit. Rastaban derives from the Arabic for “the head of the serpent”.

Other notable stars in Dracos includes the blue giants Aldhibah and Kappa Draconis the white giant Thuban the yellow giant Altais the orange giant stars Ed Asich, Grumium and Upsilon Draconis and the red giant Gianfar. Another interesting star is Kepler-10, which is notable for the fact that it was the first star identified by the Kepler mission as having at least two planets. The first, Kepler-10b, is a small rocky planet that orbits its G-class parent star every 0.8 days, while the second, Kepler-10c, has an orbital period of 42.3 days, placing both planets too close to their parent star to host life. At an estimated age of around 11.9 billion years, Kepler-10 is more than twice as old as the Sun, and at an apparent visual magnitude of 10.69 is invisible without optical aid.

Notable Deep Sky Objects

The most notable deep-sky objects in Draco includes the Cat’s Eye Nebula, and the Tadpole Galaxy, as well as one Messier object called the Spindle Galaxy (M102).

– The Cat’s Eye Nebula (NGC 6543) is a planetary nebula about 3,300 light years distant with an apparent magnitude of 9.8. It is also one of the most complex nebulae ever discovered, with its 11 or more concentric shells of gas and dust having been the subject of intense study over the years. Interestingly, the nebula appears to have formed only in the last thousand years as a result of its central star intermitedly blowing off envelopes of material as it slowly dies. In fact, the powerful solar wind of the central star is blowing off about 20 trillion tons of stellar material per second, which is why the star is now believed to be only a little more massive than the Sun. The star, however, is at least 10,000 times brighter than the Sun.

– Spindle Galaxy (Messier 102, NGC 5866) is a lenticular galaxy found 50 million light-years away that is
70,000 light-years across and contains more than 100 billion stars. When seen edge-on, its shape resembles that of a rod or spindle, hence its name. The actual shape of the galaxy is far from being decided, though, and the presence of a dust ring may suggest it could in fact be a spiral galaxy. It is not certain whether Charles Messier or Pierre Méchain discovered M102 first, but it is certain that William Herschel discovered it independently in 1788.

– Abell 2218 is a galaxy clusters that has the distinction of having being used as a gravitational lens to track down the oldest known object in the universe, a 13-billion year old galaxy that is thought to have formed as soon as 750 million light years after the Big Bang. Abell 2218 is larger than most galactic clusters, and due to its mass of about 10,000 galaxies, the light that passes by it is curved and then refocused in front of it, which is how objects vastly further away become visible. The several arcs in this image is light that was bent by the clusters’ mass, and each arc represents the light from an object behind the cluster, which is only about 2.3 million light years away. The arcs of light in this image, also known as “Einstein Rings”, can be analyzed in the same way that the light from an undistorted image can be analyzed, which is how the oldest known object in the Universe was identified.

– Tadpole Galaxy (Arp 188) is a barred spiral galaxy 400 million light years away wih a magnitude of 14.4. The galaxy contains numerous clusters of young blue stars, and gets its name from the long tail of stars that stretches around 280,000 light years from the main galaxy.


Stars Edit

Thuban (α Draconis) was the northern pole star from 3942 BC, when it moved farther north than Theta Boötis, until 1793 BC. The Egyptian Pyramids were designed to have one side facing north, with an entrance passage geometrically aligned so that Thuban would be visible at night. [2] Due to the effects of precession, it will again be the pole star around the year AD 21000. It is a blue-white giant star of magnitude 3.7, 309 light-years from Earth. The traditional name of Alpha Draconis, Thuban, means "head of the serpent". [1]

There are three stars under magnitude 3 in Draco. The brighter of the three, and the brightest star in Draco, is Gamma Draconis, traditionally called Etamin or Eltanin. It is an orange giant star of magnitude 2.2, 148 light-years from Earth. The aberration of starlight was discovered in 1728 when James Bradley observed Gamma Draconis. Nearby Beta Draconis, traditionally called Rastaban, is a yellow giant star of magnitude 2.8, 362 light-years from Earth. Its name shares a meaning with Thuban, "head of the serpent". [1] Draco also features several interacting galaxies and galaxy clusters. One such massive cluster is Abell 2218, located at a distance of 3 billion light-years (redshift 0.171).

Draco is home to several double stars and binary stars. Eta Draconis (the proper name is Athebyne [3] ) is a double star with a yellow-hued primary of magnitude 2.8 and a white-hued secondary of magnitude 8.2 located south of the primary. The two are separated by 4.8 arcseconds. [4] Mu Draconis, traditionally called Alrakis, is a binary star with two white components. Magnitude 5.6 and 5.7, the two components orbit each other every 670 years. The Alrakis system is 88 light-years from Earth. Nu Draconis is a similar binary star with two white components, 100 light-years from Earth. Both components are of magnitude 4.9 and can be distinguished in a small amateur telescope or a pair of binoculars. Omicron Draconis is a double star divisible in small telescopes. The primary is an orange giant of magnitude 4.6, 322 light-years from Earth. The secondary is of magnitude 7.8. Psi Draconis (the proper name is Dziban [3] ) is a binary star divisible in binoculars and small amateur telescopes, 72 light-years from Earth. The primary is a yellow-white star of magnitude 4.6 and the secondary is a yellow star of magnitude 5.8. 16 Draconis and 17 Draconis are part of a triple star 400 light-years from Earth, divisible in medium-sized amateur telescopes. The primary, a blue-white star of magnitude 5.1, is itself a binary with components of magnitude 5.4 and 6.5. The secondary is of magnitude 5.5 and the system is 400 light-years away. [1] 20 Draconis is a binary star with a white-hued primary of magnitude 7.1 and a yellow-hued secondary of magnitude 7.3 located east-northeast of the primary. The two are separated by 1.2 arcseconds at their maximum and have an orbital period of 420 years. As of 2012, the two components are approaching their maximum separation. [4] 39 Draconis is a triple star 188 light-years from Earth, divisible in small amateur telescopes. The primary is a blue star of magnitude 5.0, the secondary is a yellow star of magnitude 7.4, and the tertiary is a star of magnitude 8.0 the tertiary appears to be a close companion to the primary. 40 Draconis and 41 Draconis are a binary star divisible in small telescopes. The two orange dwarf stars are 170 light-years from Earth and are of magnitude 5.7 and 6.1. [1]

R Draconis is a red Mira-type variable star with a period of about 8 months. Its average minimum magnitude is approximately 12.4, and its average maximum magnitude is approximately 7.6. It was discovered to be a variable star by Hans Geelmuyden in 1876. [5]

The constellation contains the star recently named Kepler-10, which has been confirmed to be orbited by Kepler-10b, the smallest rocky Earth-sized planet yet detected outside of the Solar System.

Deep-sky objects Edit

One of deep-sky objects in Draco is the Cat's Eye Nebula (NGC 6543), a planetary nebula approximately 3,000 light-years away that was discovered by English astronomer William Herschel in 1786. [4] It is 9th magnitude and was named for its appearance in the Hubble Space Telescope, though it appears as a fuzzy blue-green disk in an amateur telescope. [1] NGC 6543 has a very complex shape due to gravitational interactions between the components of the multiple star at its center, the progenitor of the nebula approximately 1,000 years ago. [6] It is located 9.6 arcminutes away from the north ecliptic pole to the west-northwest. It is also related to IC 4677, a nebula that appears as a bar 1.8 arcminutes to the west of the Cat's Eye nebula. In long-term exposures, IC 4677 appears as a portion of a ring surrounding the planetary nebula. [4]

There are several faint galaxies in Draco, one of which is the lenticular galaxy NGC 5866 (sometimes considered to be Messier Object 102) that bears its name to a small group that also includes the spiral galaxies NGC 5879 and NGC 5907. Another is the Draco Dwarf Galaxy, one of the least luminous galaxies with an absolute magnitude of −8.6 and a diameter of only about 3,500 light years, discovered by Albert G. Wilson of Lowell Observatory in 1954. Another dwarf galaxy found in this constellation is PGC 39058.

Draco also features several interacting galaxies and galaxy clusters. One such massive cluster is Abell 2218, located at a distance of 3 billion light-years (redshift 0.171). It acts as a gravitational lens for even more distant background galaxies, allowing astronomers to study those galaxies as well as Abell 2218 itself more specifically, the lensing effect allows astronomers to confirm the cluster's mass as determined by x-ray emissions. One of the most well-known interacting galaxies is Arp 188, also called the "Tadpole Galaxy". Named for its appearance, which features a "tail" of stars 280,000 light-years long, the Tadpole Galaxy is at a distance of 420 million light-years (redshift 0.0314). The tail of stars drawn off the Tadpole Galaxy appears blue because the gravitational interaction disturbed clouds of gas and sparked star formation. [6]

Q1634+706 is a quasar that holds the distinction of being the most distant object usually visible in an amateur telescope. At magnitude 14.4, it appears star-like, though it is at a distance of 12.9 billion light-years. The light of Q1634+706 has taken 8.6 billion years to reach Earth, a discrepancy attributable to the expansion of the universe. [4]

The Hercules–Corona Borealis Great Wall, possibly the largest known structure in the universe, covers a part of the southern region of Draco.

Mythology Edit

Draco is one of the 48 constellations listed in Ptolemy's Almagest (2nd century), adopted from the list by Eudoxus of Cnidus (4th century BC). [7] A dragon in Greek mythology that may have inspired the constellation's name is Ladon, the dragon who guarded the golden apples of the Hesperides. [8] Heracles killed Ladon during his 12 labors he was tasked with stealing the golden apples. The constellation of Hercules is depicted near Draco. [1]

In Greco-Roman legend, Draco was a dragon killed by the goddess Minerva and tossed into the sky upon his defeat. The dragon was one of the Gigantes, who battled the Olympic gods for ten years. As Minerva threw the dragon, it became twisted on itself and froze at the cold North Celestial Pole before it could right itself. [8]

Sometimes, Draco is represented as the Titan son of Gaia, Typhon. [8]

Traditional Arabic astronomy does not depict a dragon in modern-day Draco, which is called the Mother Camels. Instead, two hyenas, represented by Eta Draconis and Zeta Draconis are seen attacking a baby camel (a dim star near Beta Draconis), which is protected by four female camels, represented by Beta Draconis, Gamma Draconis, Nu Draconis, and Xi Draconis. The nomads who own the camels are camped nearby, represented by a cooking tripod composed of Upsilon, Tau, and Sigma Draconis. [9] In some mythology, Draco had one hundred magnificent heads, guarded the golden apple tree, and was put in the sky as a constellation for protecting the apples with valor. The constellation has been subject to many more myths, but ones that are obscure.

Meteor showers Edit

The February Eta Draconids is a meteor shower that was discovered on February 4, 2011. Observers noted six meteors with a common radiant in a short period. Its parent is a previously unknown long-period comet. [10]

The main character in the 1996 film Dragonheart gets his name from this constellation. The film also reveals that Draco is actually a dragon heaven, where dragons go when their time in this world is complete, and if they have upheld the oath of an ancient dragon to guard mankind, with dragons otherwise fading into nothing upon their deaths. At the conclusion of the film, Draco, the last dragon, ascends into the constellation after he sacrifices himself to destroy an evil king that he had saved years ago. This is further elaborated on in the sequel and prequel films that follow.

The Dragon Variation of the Sicilian Defense chess opening was also named after the constellation by Russian chess master Fyodor Dus-Chotimirsky. [11]

The Beyblade top Lightning L-Drago 100HF and its evolutions Meteo L-Drago LW105LF and L-Drago Destructor F:S are inspired by/based on the Draco constellation. They all feature three dragon heads chasing each other in a counter-clockwise motion, possibly referencing Ladon's multiple heads. Omega Dragonis 85XF is another bey that is also inspired by/based on the Draco constellation. [ citation needed ]

Draco Malfoy, an antagonist in the Harry Potter series, is named after the constellation as well. [12]


Rastaban and Eltanin, the Dragon’s Eyes, on June evenings

Tonight, find the Dragon’s Eyes. For years, I’ve glanced up to the north on June evenings and spied the two stars marked on today’s chart, Rastaban and Eltanin in the constellation Draco. They’re noticeable because they’re relatively bright and near each other. There’s always that split second when I ask myself with some excitement what two stars are those? It’s then that my eyes drift to blue-white Vega nearby … and I know, by Vega’s nearness, that they are the stars Rastaban and Eltanin.

These two stars represent the fiery Eyes of the constellation Draco the Dragon. Moreover, these stars nearly mark the radiant point for the annual October Draconid meteor shower.

Because the stars stay fixed relative to each other, Vega is always near these stars. Vega, by the way, lodges at the apex of the Summer Triangle, a famous pattern consisting of three bright stars in three separate constellations, also prominent at this time of year.

Rastaban and Eltanin from around the globe

From tropical and subtropical latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere, the stars Rastaban and Eltanin shine quite low in the northern sky (below Vega). In either hemisphere, at all time zones, the Dragon’s eyes climb highest up in the sky around midnight (1 a.m. daylight saving time) in mid-June, 11 p.m. (midnight daylight saving time) in early July, and 9 p.m. (10 p.m. daylight saving time) in early August. But from temperate latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere (southern Australia and New Zealand), the Dragon’s eyes never climb above your horizon. However, you can catch the star Vega way low in your northern sky.

People at mid-northern latitudes get to view the Dragon’s eyes all night long!

Speaking of Rastaban and Eltanin, one of you asked:

The answer is that they’re patterns of stars on the sky’s dome. The Greeks and Romans, for example, named them for their gods and goddesses, and also for many sorts of animals. In the 20th century, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) formalized the names and boundaries of the constellations. Now every star in the sky belongs to one or another constellation.

The stars within constellations aren’t connected, except in the mind’s eye of stargazers. The stars in general lie at vastly different distances from Earth. It’s by finding juxtaposed patterns on the sky’s dome that you’ll come to know the constellations, much as I identify Rastaban and Eltanin at this time of year by looking for the star Vega.

Draco the Dragon. Image via Old Book Image Art Gallery.

Bottom line: Look in the northeast on these June evenings, near the star Vega. You’ll see Rastaban and Eltanin, two stars that are bright and close together.


Draco the Dragon Constellation Part 3


Over the past two articles, I have posed the question of why would the Creator God have an angelic being called a Seraphim (fiery flying serpent – dragons) closest to His throne. “As above, so it is below.” Kings and royals have used the dragon symbolism for thousands of years and until this very day. Europe, Asia, Africa and into the Americas, the dragon symbol can be found and associated with royalties or king-priest.

The dragon is the symbol you are greeted with when entering the city of London. What does it say? The Dragon of London has “Domine dirige nos” (O Lord guide us) written underneath. Making the Dragon as a god to guide them, with the specific term “Lord” associated with the image of a Dragon.

The red dragon represent Great Britain, the only nation that uses the red dragon as it’s emblem. We don’t have time here to show how that fits in to Revelation chapter 12, “great red dragon prophecy.” The Queen has a huge stature of a red dragon next to her throne, called “the Queens beast.” The royals possess ancient hidden knowledge past down from the angels, sons of God. They understand the power of symbolism. This human size image of a dragon below was used in the Queen’s Coronation in 1953. It stands beside her throne. The Dragons are always guardians of the throne, they symbolize power and prosperity.

Throughout the world, especially, in Asia, we hear about various “Dragon Societies” and “Dragon Families.” There are the Black, Red, White, Green and Yellow Dragon Societies most of the elite of the world identify with at least one of them. These are people that espouse certain secret dragon principles and ideologies that are a part of a secret society. Many of the Dragon families can actually trace their bloodline literal to dragon ancestry. The world we live in is more stranger than what many believe to be fiction.

EVEN THE HEAVENS CONFIRM DRAGON IN THE THRONE ROOM

In the center of the Zodiac is a constellation of stars called Cepheus. The stars are configured in the image of One sitting on a throne, ruling over the other 47 constellations of stars. At about 90 degrees apart around the throne is the Face of a Lion = LEO, Face of a Man = AQUARIUS, Face of an Ox = TAURUS, and on older maps near Scorpio, the face of an Eagle/Phoenix on current maps it is only the Scorpion= SCORPIO. These are the same images of beings called Cherubim in the Book of Ezekiel and the creatures around the throne in Revelation chapter 4. These 4 Zodiac signs form what is called the Cosmic Cross, exactly 90 degrees apart in the heavens and One sitting on the throne directly in the center.

So we see by this literal picture of the heavens, when the Prophets were speaking and revealing mysteries, it had a lot to do with the Zodiac. Zodiac simply means circle of animals the Way, the Path the Sun travels. It is the circle of animals, beasts, objects, and beings above our head telling and retelling the mystic secrets night after night. They show forth the Way that leads to Truth and brings one into eternal Life. This is the path of Sun/Son.

The constellation of Cepheus, which means the Crowned King, One who comes to rule belongs to the Zodiac house of Pisces the Fishes. The King sits high in the north sky on his throne with his royal scepter held high in the center of the Zodiac. Cepheus is a type of the Celestial Christ, the King of kings and the King of the universe. Cephesus is one of the oldest known constellations in the heavens. In mythology, Cepheus comes from Ethiopia and is the King of Ethiopia. He is married to the beautiful Cassiopeia (another star constellation that represents the bride of Christ), their daughter Andromeda (another star constellation that represents the Church religious system – in the heavens she is in chains). This myth was later borrowed by the Greeks.

Cepheus is now located just beneath the North Star at the North Celestial Pole. This is true north. At times Cepheus becomes the North Star (Pole Star), due to the axis of the Earth. 1000 years from now according to astronomers, Earth’s axis will point directly to Cepheus. There are so many messages in this info that we can not get to now. I will only ask some questions to help you to think.

Why did the Egyptians and other Pyramid builders build the Pyramids in alignment with true north? Why were the Pharaoh’s buried facing true north? Why was Solomon’s Temple built on the sides of the north? Why does Scripture place God’s throne in the north? “Great is the Lord..is Mt Zion, on the sides of the north.” Psalms 48 “O Lucifer, son of the morning! How art thou cut down to the ground..For thou hast said in thine heart, I will ascend into heaven, I will exalt my throne above the stars of God: I will sit also upon the mount of the congregation, in the sides of the north:” Isaiah 14

We have shared history, legends, metaphysics, and the Bible that confirms that the Dragon (Seraphim) are the closest to the throne of God. Could there be an astrological/astronomical witness of this fact? Since the stars predate Earth, humans, myths and the Bible there has to be a Celestial Prophet proclaiming and confirming this.

DRACO THE DRAGON

“That He would show unto you the secrets of wisdom, that they are double (two-sided) to that which is…” Job 11:6

On the “right hand” and beneath the feet of Cepheus, the One who comes to rule is a huge constellation of stars called DRACO the DRAGON. Draco has about 80 stars and does not belong to the Zodiac sign house of Pisces, where Cepheus belongs. Draco is a decan or sub-constellation of Sagittarius. Thuban, (Alpha Draconis) is the brightest star of Draco the Dragon. Thuban means the snake in Arabic. Over 5000 years ago it was the Pole Star, true north. Due to the Earth’s axis, it appears to be cast down. Didn’t Isaiah 14 say that the morning star would be cut down?

Draco is also called the Lawgiver by the ancients. Hear this truth and understand it. There were those that descended to Earth from the constellation of Draco in our distant pass. (Earth has been visited by many races of beings). Reptilians from Draco have had a part in the development of humans on planet Earth. The Draconians passed their extreme laws and rules onto humans. These other worldly lawgivers were very strict and demanding.

Ok by now, some of you are thinking, “what has this guy been smoking, Draconian Lawgivers?!” Have you ever heard of Draconian Law? It was also called a Homicidal Law. It’s name comes from ancient Greece. Over 700 years before Christ a man by the name of Draco (Dragon) introduced these harsh laws that demanded blood. Why is it that we yet even use this term “draconian law” today to describe some of our extreme laws? Where does it really come from? Didn’t Moses the Lawgiver give us homicidal laws (stoning humans, burning humans, decapitation, etc)?


The constellation Draco contains several bright stars that make up its shape. Some of these main stars are known as:

  • Etamin
  • Aldibain
  • Rastaban
  • Altais
  • Aldhibah
  • Edasich
  • Batentaban Borealis

Some of the deep sky objects which have been discovered in Draco include: Cat’s Eye Nebula, Spindle Galaxy, Draco Dwarf Galaxy, Abell 2218, Tadpole Galaxy, Q1634+706, NGC 6340.

You can now name your own star in the constellation of Draco in just a few clicks. Name the star, view it in 3D and look it up with the OSR Star Finder App!


Has this image of the Draco Constellation been altered - Astronomy

High in the northern sky the coils of a great serpent-like dragon seem about to capture the small bear Ursa Minor. It's Draco, a circumpolar constellation that circles the north celestial pole, never setting below a northern hemisphere horizon.

Mythology
Draco was already an ancient constellation when the Greek astronomer Ptolemy catalogued it in the 2nd century. Dragons were part of the creation myths of the Babylonians a few thousand years ago. Their primordial goddess Tiamat gave birth to the younger gods, including dragons and serpents, and she herself may also have taken dragon form at times. The Babylonians envisaged dragons with wings, and originally the constellation Draco was also winged. But from about the sixth century BCE onward, the Greek dragon became wingless and more serpentine.

Not surprisingly for such an old constellation, many classical stories are associated with Draco. In the most popular surviving one, the dragon was Ladon, the guardian of the golden apples of the Hesperides. For his eleventh labor, Hercules was sent to steal the apples. He killed the dragon with a poisoned arrow and, with the help of Atlas, acquired the apples.

Stars and planets
Draco's sinuous shape makes it believably dragon-like. However the constellation is very spread out and most of its stars aren't bright, so it can be difficult to see, except for the “eyes of the dragon”. These are the stars Gamma Draconis and Beta Draconis, which you can find to the north-northwest of Lyra's bright star Vega.

The star labels with Greek letters are Bayer designations. People usually assume that Johann Bayer (1572-1625) named them in order of brightness, alpha being the brightest. In fact, Bayer had various criteria for the naming order, and in Draco, Alpha Draconis (Thuban) is outshone by seven other stars. The brightest star is Eltanin (Gamma Draconis). Eltanin is a cool orange giant 150 light years away, which has expanded to nearly 50 times the Sun's width. Its surface is cooler than that of the Sun, but since it's much bigger, it's about 500 times brighter. Interestingly, it's also moving towards us, and in 1.5 million years it will be the brightest star in our sky.

Thuban, although far from being the brightest star, is of great historical significance. It was the north polar star long ago when the pharaohs were building the pyramids. The heavens haven't changed, nor has the tilt of Earth's axis. The change, called precession, is due to a little wobble in Earth's axis. In another 19,000 years or so Thuban will be the pole star again. [Animation credit: AstroBob]

Exoplanets
The Kepler Space Telescope was launched in 2009 to search for exoplanets in an area of the sky that included Draco. Kepler was retired in 2018 with 2700 confirmed discoveries and a similar number of exoplanet candidates. As of July 2019, over 140 of the confirmed planets were in Draco.

Astronomers are particularly interested in smaller planets and in planetary systems, so Kepler-90 has had a lot of attention. It's a Sun-like star 2500 light years away, much younger and somewhat hotter than the Sun, and with a system of 8 planets. As in our Solar System, the smaller planets orbit closer to the star, and the gas giants orbit farther out. But the Kepler-90 system is very compact. Its outermost planet is at the same distance from the star as the Earth is from the Sun. [Image: NASA / Ames Research Center / Wendy Stenzel]

Deep sky objects
NGC 5907 was just a bit of nebulosity to its 18th century discoverer, William Herschel. Today we know it's a spiral galaxy 50 million light years away. We can't see the spiral structure because it's edge-on to us. The header image shows why one of its nicknames is the Splinter Galaxy. [Image credit: R. Jay GaBany]

A more exotic spiral galaxy is the Tadpole Galaxy (Arp 188). It's been disrupted by the gravitational effects of a close encounter with another galaxy. When two galaxies interact, a tidal tail of gas can often only be seen in the infrared. However this tail, which is 280,000 light years long, is visible because all along the tail the gas collapsed into numerous young blue stars and star clusters.

Draco has not only galaxies, but also clusters of galaxies. One massive cluster, Abell 2218, is about 3 billion light-years away. It acts as a gravitational lens for background galaxies even farther away, allowing astronomers also to study those galaxies.

But there's something bigger than a cluster of galaxies: a supercluster, i.e., a cluster of clusters. Part of the biggest known structure in the observable universe can be seen in Draco's southern region. It's the Hercules-Corona Borealis Great Wall, a colossal supercluster 6-10 billion light years in size, and containing billions of galaxies.

Nonetheless my favorite object isn’t a galaxy, it's NGC 6543, nicknamed the Cat’s Eye Nebula. It's another Herschel discovery. His telescope showed it as a fuzzy blue-green disk, the reason he gave the name planetary nebulae to such objects. In fact, they're created by Sun-like stars running out of hydrogen fuel, and sloughing off their outer layers. The Cat's Eye is one of the most complex and beautiful of the planetary nebulae.

Content copyright © 2021 by Mona Evans. All rights reserved.
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Kiss the Sky Tonight -- Month of June 2021

The bright clusters and nebulae of the night sky are often named for flowers or insects. Though its wingspan covers over 3 light-years, Planetary Nebula C69 (NGC 6302), the Butterfly Nebula, is no exception. With an estimated surface temperature of about 250,000 degrees Celsius, the dying central star of this particular planetary nebula has become exceptionally hot, shining brightly in ultraviolet light but hidden from direct view by a dense torus of dust. This sharp close-up of the dying star's nebula was recorded in 2009 by the Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field Camera 3, and is presented here in reprocessed colors. Cutting across a bright cavity of ionized gas, the dust torus surrounding the central star is near the center of this view, almost edge-on to the line-of-sight. Molecular hydrogen has been detected in the hot star's dusty cosmic shroud. NGC 6302 lies about 4000 light-years away in the constellation of the Scorpius. [Video and Content Credits: NASA, JPL &ndash Caltech, and the Office of Public Outreach &ndash STScI] [Image Credit: NASA, ESA, the Hubble SM4 ERO Team, Francesco Antonucci)]

Kiss the Sky Tonight -- Month of June 2021

Welcome to the night sky report for June 2021 -- Your guide to the constellations, deep sky objects, planets, and celestial events that are observable during the month. Though the nights are shorter in June, they are filled with fine sights. Look for the Hercules constellation, which will lead you to a globular star cluster with hundreds of thousands of densely packed stars. You can also spot Draco the dragon, which will point you to the Cat&rsquos Eye Nebula. Catch Saturn and Jupiter in the morning and the constellation Scorpius after dark. Plus skywatchers in the Northeast US, Eastern Canada, and Northern Europe can see a partial solar eclipse on June 10th.

The balmy nights of June are short, but filled with fine sights for the backyard stargazer. Look for the Big Dipper riding high in the northwest. Its handle points toward Arcturus: the fourth-brightest star in the night sky. Arcturus is part of the contellation Bootes, the herdsman.

Bootes also contains a double star called Epsilon Bootes, or Izar. The striking pair of stars appears yellow-orange and bluish in a modest telescope.

To the left of Bootes sits a semicircle of stars known as Corona Borealis, the Northern Crown.

Next to Corona Borealis, we find the dim constellation of a bright hero: Hercules, the strongman of

Greek mythology. Near the center of the constellation is a trapezoid known as the Keystone. The Keystone is essential to finding the Great Star Cluster in Hercules, a globular star cluster containing hundreds of thousands of densely packed stars.

Globular star clusters contain among the oldest stars in our galaxy. All of the stars within a globular cluster formed around the same time. With NASA&rsquos Hubble Space Telescope, we can observe these old stars individually and compare how stars of different masses change as they age.

Just outside the Keystone sits another globular cluster: M92. M92 is more distant than the Hercules Cluster, and looks smaller and fainter through a telescope. An image from Hubble shows many bright, old red giant stars in its crowded core.

North of Hercules, breathing fire on his feet, lays Draco the dragon. Draco&rsquos long body curls around the Little Dipper. Located along the dragon&rsquos coils is NGC 6543&mdashthe Cat&rsquos Eye Nebula, a cloud of expanding and glowing gas from a dying star.

On summer evenings, you may notice a curved grouping of stars crawling across the southern sky, among them a brilliant red beacon. This is the constellation Scorpius, the scorpion, and beginning in June, it's the prime time to look for it.

This grouping of stars has been thought of as having the shape of a scorpion going back to ancient times in the Mediterranean and Middle East. In the Greek myth, the scorpion's deadly sting brought down the great hunter Orion, and that's why &ndash the story goes &ndash we find them on opposite sides of the sky today.

This pattern of stars also been seen as part of a great dragon, in China, and the fish hook of the demigod Maui in Hawaii. That fish-hook shape also forms the tail of the scorpion.

At the beginning of June, if you're in the northern hemisphere, the scorpion's tail might still be below the horizon for you, early in the evening. It rises over the first few hours after dark. But by the end of the month, the scorpion's tail will be above the horizon after sunset for most stargazers.

That bright, beacon-like star in Scorpius is Antares, which is a huge red giant star, and one of the brightest in the sky. It forms the blazing heart of the scorpion. So look toward the south and use Antares as your guide to find the constellation Scorpius.

Following last month's total lunar eclipse, June brings us a solar eclipse. On June 10th, the Moon will slip briefly between Earth and the Sun, partially obscuring our local star from view.

Whereas May's lunar eclipse was best viewed around the Pacific, this month's solar eclipse will be a treat for those in the northeast US, Eastern Canada, and Northern Europe. For US viewers, this is a sunrise event, with the Moon already appearing to have taken a bite out of the Sun as it's rising. So you'll want to find a clear view toward the eastern horizon to observe it. Those farther to the north and east will see more of the Sun obscured by the Moon. For those in northern Europe, it's more of a lunchtime eclipse.

Finally this month, you'll remember back in December, when Jupiter and Saturn had their incredibly close meet-up in the sky. In the run-up to that "Great Conjunction," Jupiter led Saturn across the sky all through 2020. Well, 6 months later, the pair continues to move farther apart, and now Saturn has the lead position as the two planets rise and set. Look for them in the east after midnight or toward the south at dawn.

And for more Jupiter excitement in June, NASA's Juno spacecraft is making its next close flyby over Jupiter on June 8th, and this time it will also make a low-altitude flyby over the planet-sized, icy moon Ganymede on June 7th. This is the first of several planned flybys of the Jovian moons by Juno, over the next couple of years that include encounters with icy Europa and volcanic Io!

Thursday morning, June 10, 2021, at 6:53 a.m. EDT, will be the new Moon, when the Moon passes between the Earth and the Sun. As described above, the Moon will eclipse the Sun. Remember that it is unsafe to look directly at the Sun (unless you have special eclipse glasses to protect your eyes).

Parts of Canada, Greenland, the Arctic Ocean, and Siberia will see an annular eclipse. For much of the rest of northeastern North America, Greenland, Northern Europe, and northern Asia, this will be a partial eclipse. From the Washington, D.C. area, the Moon will be blocking about 80% of the left side of the Sun as they rise together in the east-northeast at 5:42 a.m., causing the Sun to appear as a crescent. As the pair rises higher in the sky, the silhouette of the Moon will gradually shift off the Sun to the lower left, allowing more of the Sun to show until the eclipse ends at around 6:29 a.m., with the Sun about 7 degrees above the horizon in the east-northeast.

On the evening of June 10th, the planet Mercury will be passing between Earth and Sun as seen from Earth &ndash this is called inferior conjunction. Mercury will be shifting from the evening sky to the morning sky and will begin emerging from the glow of dawn on the eastern horizon after about June 20.

Beginning the morning of Sunday, June 20, 2021, the planet Mercury will begin appearing above the horizon about 30 minutes before sunrise (approximately when it may start being visible in the glow of dawn). Mercury will not start appearing above the horizon at the time morning twilight begins until July 1.

On Monday evening, June 21, 2021, the bright planet Venus (as the Evening Star) and the bright star Pollux will appear at their closest to each other, a little over 5 degrees apart. The pair will appear near each other during the latter part of June.

The night sky is always a celestial showcase. Explore its wonders from your own backyard.

The following Deep Sky Objects are found in constellations that peak during the month. Some can be viewed with a small telescope, but the majority will require a moderate to large telescope. The following is adapted from my personal viewing list: "The Guy Pirro 777 Best and Brightest Deep Sky Objects."