Astronomy

Where do new stars get their hydrogen from?

Where do new stars get their hydrogen from?

When stars run out of hydrogen, they explode (though they also use heavier elements for some time) and form nebulae. In the nebulae, new stars are born which use hydrogen as their fuel.

So, my question is from where do these new stars get hydrogen for their fuel?


Stars only burn hydrogen in their core, where the temperature gets high enough for nuclear reactions to occur. They end their lives when they run out of fuel in the core, but lots of hydrogen still exists in their envelopes.

The Sun will burn 5-10% of its mass before exhausting its core. When this happens, the core will contract due to the radiation pressure disappearing. It then starts to burn hydrogen in a shell around the core. Eventually, when the Sun dies, it will have burned less than half of its hydrogen. Larger stars burn an even smaller fraction.

This means that, when stars die they still leave hydrogen behind for the next generation.

Galaxies can still run of of gas, though. Since after all, each $M_odot$ of star formed burns of the order of $1,M_odot$, if a galaxy isn't fueled with new gas it will become depleted on a timescale of order $1$ over its specific star formation rate sSFR, which is its star formation rate SFR measured in Solar masses per year, divided by its stellar mass $M_*$ in Solar masses: $$ t_mathrm{depl} sim frac{1}{mathrm{sSFR}}=frac{M_*/M_odot}{mathrm{SFR}/M_odot,mathrm{yr}^{-1}}. $$ For instance, a $10^9,M_odot$ galaxy with a star formation rate of $10,M_odot,mathrm{yr}^{-1}$ will become depleted of gas in roughly $10^8$ years.

Gas-depleted galaxies do exist, and the more depleted they are, the lower the star formation rate is (e.g. Rose et al. 2010), but in general the timescale is longer than the above, since galaxies also accrete gas from the surrounding circumgalactic medium.


Author: Brian Koberlein

Earth is perfectly suited for organic life. It stands to reason then that similar worlds orbiting distant stars might also be rich with life. But proving it will be a challenge. One of the better ways to discover extraterrestrial life will be to study the atmospheres of inhabited exoplanets, but Earth is fairly small for a planet and has a thin atmosphere compared to larger worlds. It will be much easier to study the atmospheres of gas planets, but could such worlds harbor life? A new paper in Universe argues it could.


New research adds a wrinkle to our understanding of the origins of matter in the Milky Way

New findings published this week in Physical Review Letters suggest that carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen cosmic rays travel through the galaxy toward Earth in a similar way, but, surprisingly, that iron arrives at Earth differently. Learning more about how cosmic rays move through the galaxy helps address a fundamental, lingering question in astrophysics: How is matter generated and distributed across the universe?

"So what does this finding mean?" asks John Krizmanic, a senior scientist with UMBC's Center for Space Science and Technology (CSST). "These are indicators of something interesting happening. And what that something interesting is we're going to have to see."

Cosmic rays are atomic nuclei--atoms stripped of their electrons--that are constantly whizzing through space at nearly the speed of light. They enter Earth's atmosphere at extremely high energies. Information about these cosmic rays can give scientists clues about where they came from in the galaxy and what kind of event generated them.

An instrument on the International Space Station (ISS) called the Calorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) has been collecting data about cosmic rays since 2015. The data include details such as how many and what kinds of atoms are arriving, and how much energy they're arriving with. The American, Italian, and Japanese teams that manage CALET, including UMBC's Krizmanic and postdoc Nick Cannady, collaborated on the new research.

Iron on the move

Cosmic rays arrive at Earth from elsewhere in the galaxy at a huge range of energies--anywhere from 1 billion volts to 100 billion billion volts. The CALET instrument is one of extremely few in space that is able to deliver fine detail about the cosmic rays it detects. A graph called a cosmic ray spectrum shows how many cosmic rays are arriving at the detector at each energy level. The spectra for carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen cosmic rays are very similar, but the key finding from the new paper is that the spectrum for iron is significantly different.

There are several possibilities to explain the differences between iron and the three lighter elements. The cosmic rays could accelerate and travel through the galaxy differently, although scientists generally believe they understand the latter, Krizmanic says.

"Something that needs to be emphasized is that the way the elements get from the sources to us is different, but it may be that the sources are different as well," adds Michael Cherry, physics professor emeritus at Louisiana State University (LSU) and a co-author on the new paper. Scientists generally believe that cosmic rays originate from exploding stars (supernovae), but neutron stars or very massive stars could be other potential sources.

Next-level precision

An instrument like CALET is important for answering questions about how cosmic rays accelerate and travel, and where they come from. Instruments on the ground or balloons flown high in Earth's atmosphere were the main source of cosmic ray data in the past. But by the time cosmic rays reach those instruments, they have already interacted with Earth's atmosphere and broken down into secondary particles. With Earth-based instruments, it is nearly impossible to identify precisely how many primary cosmic rays and which elements are arriving, plus their energies. But CALET, being on the ISS above the atmosphere, can measure the particles directly and distinguish individual elements precisely.

Iron is a particularly useful element to analyze, explains Cannady, a postdoc with CSST and a former Ph.D. student with Cherry at LSU. On their way to Earth, cosmic rays can break down into secondary particles, and it can be hard to distinguish between original particles ejected from a source (like a supernova) and secondary particles. That complicates deductions about where the particles originally came from.

"As things interact on their way to us, then you'll get essentially conversions from one element to another," Cannady says. "Iron is unique, in that being one of the heaviest things that can be synthesized in regular stellar evolution, we're pretty certain that it is pretty much all primary cosmic rays. It's the only pure primary cosmic ray, where with others you'll have some secondary components feeding into that as well."

"Made of stardust"

Measuring cosmic rays gives scientists a unique view into high-energy processes happening far, far away. The cosmic rays arriving at CALET represent "the stuff we're made of. We are made of stardust," Cherry says. "And energetic sources, things like supernovas, eject that material from their interiors, out into the galaxy, where it's distributed, forms new planets, solar systems, and. us."

"The study of cosmic rays is the study of how the universe generates and distributes matter, and how that affects the evolution of the galaxy," Krizmanic adds. "So really it's studying the astrophysics of this engine we call the Milky Way that's throwing all these elements around."

A global effort

The Japanese space agency launched CALET and today leads the mission in collaboration with the U.S. and Italian teams. In the U.S., the CALET team includes researchers from LSU NASA Goddard Space Flight Center UMBC University of Maryland, College Park University of Denver and Washington University.The new paper is the fifth from this highly successful international collaboration published in PRL, one of the most prestigious physics journals.

CALET was optimized to detect cosmic ray electrons, because their spectrum can contain information about their sources. That's especially true for sources that are relatively close to Earth in galactic terms: within less than one-thirtieth the distance across the Milky Way. But CALET also detects the atomic nuclei of cosmic rays very precisely. Now those nuclei are offering important insights about the sources of cosmic rays and how they got to Earth.

"We didn't expect that the nuclei - the carbon, oxygen, protons, iron - would really start showing some of these detailed differences that are clearly pointing at things we don't know," Cherry says.

The latest finding creates more questions than it answers, emphasizing that there is still more to learn about how matter is generated and moves around the galaxy. "That's a fundamental question: How do you make matter?" Krizmanic says. But, he adds, "That's the whole point of why we went in this business, to try to understand more about how the universe works."

Disclaimer: AAAS and EurekAlert! are not responsible for the accuracy of news releases posted to EurekAlert! by contributing institutions or for the use of any information through the EurekAlert system.


Small Stars: Planetary Nebulae

When smaller stars like our Sun reach the end of their hydrogen-burning lives, one of their final acts is to cast off their outer layers back into interstellar space, forming what we call a &ldquoplanetary nebula.&rdquo The term dates back hundreds of years to the astronomer William Herschel, the discoverer of infrared light. He discovered round, fuzzy objects that, to him, looked a bit like the planet Uranus. While today we know they are not planets, the term is still used.

The story of a planetary nebula begins as the star nears its end. After billion of years of fusing hydrogen into helium, its helium-rich core becomes hot and dense enough to become a fuel source itself. Helium burns to forge an even heavier mix of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen, and this renewed burst of energy puffs the star out into a vastly larger red giant.

If the star is small enough, these heavier elements will never reach the burning point themselves and the fusion process will stop. The star stops producing energy and dies, but in those final stages it sheds its outer layers. This material blows out into interstellar space, carrying with it traces of the heavier elements it once formed, primarily carbon.

The surviving core of the star is known as a &ldquowhite dwarf.&rdquo It is incredibly dense, with most of the mass of the star crammed into an object about the size of the Earth. While it no longer generates energy, it is still very hot and shines brightly in the ultraviolet.

The light from the white dwarf core heats up the surrounding nebula, causing the various atoms and molecules to glow in the infrared. Infrared observations not only help us understand the gases contained in these nebulae, but reveal the carbon dust that can not be seen in visible light.

The infrared view of the Helix nebula has revealed some of the turbulent aftermath following this star&rsquos death. Blue-green colors indicate the outer gassy layers blowing into space. The brighter red circle in the very center is the glow of a dusty disk circling the white dwarf (the disk itself is too small to be seen). Before the star died, its comets (and possibly planets) would have orbited the star in an orderly fashion. But when the star blew off its outer layers, the icy bodies and outer planets would have been tossed about and into each other, resulting in an ongoing cosmic dust storm.


Online Marketing Made Easy with Amy Porterfield Integrity Network

Ever wish you had a business mentor with over a decade of experience whispering success secrets in your ear? That’s exactly what you’ll get when you tune into the top-ranked Online Marketing Made Easy Podcast with your host, 9 to 5er turned CEO of a multi-million dollar business, Amy Porterfield. Her specialty? Breaking down big ideas and strategies into actionable step-by-step processes designed to get you results with a whole lot less stress. Tune in, get inspired, and get ready to discover why hundreds of thousands of online business owners turn to Amy for guidance when it comes to all things online business including digital courses, list building, social media, content, webinars, and so much more. Whether you're a budding entrepreneur, have a comfy side-hustle, or are looking to take your business to the next level, each episode is designed to help you take immediate action on the most important strategies for starting and growing your online business today.

#382: Step-by-Step Systems To Eliminate Overwhelm & Work Less

People often ask me, “Amy, what’s the secret to your success?” and I always say that I live and die by systems. Without systems I could not have a multimillion-dollar business and still have a life. I could not have a four-day workweek and actually make money if I didn’t have systems.

If you want to know my secrets for going from a constant state of busy business overwhelm to tons of organization, more free time, more money in the bank, and a four-day workweek… you’re in the right place.

#381: Perfect Your Price Point & Create Consistent Revenue With Jereshia Hawk

Fear of charging too much? Yeah… we’re gonna talk about. If you're ready to convert more clients and boost your sales processes, this podcast episode is your blueprint.
Join me as I connect with Jereshia Hawk, business coach, sales expert, and framework phenom when it comes to knowing when to sell, perfecting what to charge, and creating consistent revenue streams.
Jereshia has helped over 350 entrepreneurs double their package prices, convert more sales calls, and increase their revenue growth within 12 months.
Plus, she’s a huge advocate for women of color in leadership positions which is part of her entrepreneurial WHY.
During our chat, Jereshia talks about the 10 questions to know exactly how much more you should be charging. Questions we should all answer that are simple, straightforward, and get results.
I had sooooo many questions for Jereshia and I think you’re going to love the takeaways she gives as we go through them all.
Get ready for note taking goodness and tips for *finally* knowing just what to charge for your offer.
Plus, as promised, here’s the script that Jereshia and I mention in the conversation. Make sure you listen so you can take action on this tried and tested process right away.
Go on your Instagram stories, show your face, and say: 'Hey all! I've helped [# OF PEOPLE] get [X RESULTS] in their [TYPE OF BUSINESS]. I'm currently looking to take on a few more clients and have [X SPOTS OPEN]. I would love to go on this journey with you. Are you a [INSERT WHO YOU HELP]? If so, I want to hear from you! Send me a DM and I'll send you more details about this opportunity.
Here’s a glance at this episode.
[06:42] Jereshia shares about overcoming the fear of charging too much, and how “charging what you’re worth” isn’t the right way to think. [15:05] Here’s how to create consistent revenue. For starters, don't bring your employee mindset into your entrepreneurial playground. [20:01] Guess what, if you’re listening to this, you are ready to sell. Jereshia is a big believer in selling before you build. [32:19] She even shares tips for direct message selling. She says, “Conversion happens in conversation.” [36:01] Action tip: Jereshia gives you an actual way to welcome new clients through Instagram stories -- she even gives you a script! Rate, Review, & Subscribe on Apple Podcasts
‘I love Amy and Online Marketing Made Easy.’ here! This helps me support more people — just like you — move toward the online life and business that they desire. Click here, scroll to the bottom, tap to rate with five stars, and select “Write a Review.” Then be sure to let me know what you loved most about the episode!
Also, if you haven’t done so already, subscribe to the podcast. I’m adding a bunch of bonus episodes to the feed and, if you’re not subscribed, there’s a good chance you’ll miss out. Subscribe now!

#380: 4 Strategies To Create A High Converting Sales Page

Are you ready to boost your sales and crack the code on customer conversions?
Ask any copywriter about sales pages and they’ll tell you: it takes a lot of tinkering to crack the sales conversion code.
That said, after our last Digital Course Academy launch -- I think we might have actually done it and I’m spilling all the beans about it.
In this podcast episode, you’ll learn exactly what widgets we used and strategies we implemented to keep eyes on the DCA sales page for over 5 minutes.
That’s a lifetime when it comes to viewer stats.
It also means that the sales page is working wonders when it comes to keeping leads engaged.
As an online business owner, I want you to have knowledge about the little things that made a big difference in our latest launch conversions (so you can use them too!) -- things like:

A customizable widget that helps potential students, customers, and clients get all of their burning questions answered face to face The one section every sales page needs to help customers feel confident about their purchase (one of my favs!) How video can keep your customers engaged right from the very top of the page and what to include so they can’t help but keep watching, reading, and clicking those buy buttons I also tell you the #1 simple to implement and most engaging part of the page that you don’t want to miss. Stick around until the end of the episode for that one!
Here’s a glance at this episode.
[04:09] We used VideoAsk which is a widget which allows you to have face-to-face video conversations with your customers and ended up with a 33% conversion rate. [08:34] Testimonials was another enticing section. We had three or four on the page and then offered the option of looking through an entire database of customer testimonials broken up by category. [11:39] There was also a sizzle reel at the top of the sales page. This is a short video mashup of audio, video and images that promote your offer, and something you can make on your own! [14:08] Our chat feature was hot on our sales page. This is the little chat bubble that pops up and offers a live chat, which will guarantee higher engagement. 20:28] Track your metrics. It's the only way to know if all of your sales page efforts are working. Google analytics allows me to see trends. We know if we are growing, improving, and how to pivot. [22:13] Action steps: Decide which of the above mentioned methods you are going to use and start planning things out. Decide during this week and start scheduling each one. Create a plan for one or two of these strategies and start chipping away at it. Rate, Review, & Subscribe on Apple Podcasts
‘I love Amy and Online Marketing Made Easy.’ here! This helps me support more people — just like you — move toward the online life and business that they desire. Click here, scroll to the bottom, tap to rate with five stars, and select “Write a Review.” Then be sure to let me know what you loved most about the episode!
Also, if you haven’t done so already, subscribe to the podcast. I’m adding a bunch of bonus episodes to the feed and, if you’re not subscribed, there’s a good chance you’ll miss out. Subscribe now!

#379: Cure Writer’s Block: The Content Structure My Team Swears By

Get ready to tackle the creativity time crunch and discover the little known framework that I use in my business to produce content.
Let’s be honest: social media, podcasts, newsletters, sales pages and everything else you need to run your business can take a ton of time out of an already busy day.
Just when you think you’re caught up, your content calendar sends a reminder and you’re back at it again.
Sometimes it may feel like you’re always “behind” in your business. You’re in good company -- many entrepreneurs just like you are in the same boat.
That’s why in this podcast episode, I tackle the content time crunch so you can start speeding up the production process and start standing out online.
Not only will you get some behind-the-scenes sneak peeks on how we write podcast episodes, social media and more but you’ll also get the inside scoop on:

How this framework can be used for anything you’re creating so it’s compelling and creates flow and clarity Ways you might be missing out on consistency and a simple fix to help across all channels Getting past the dreaded writer’s block so you produce assets more quickly (and so it doesn’t take all day) Get ready to move past that day long content creation process and get into a flow state instead -- this episode is waiting for you.
Here’s a glance at this episode.
[04:07] Start with the what. This is an overview of the main point or outcome you want your students to achieve. [06:17] Next, is the why. Explain why this content is important and why it matters to your audience. Build your case for the importance of what you're sharing. [07:44] Move on to the how. This is a step-by-step on how your audience can apply what you're teaching to their own lives. You're providing them with a road map that leads with a clear intentional flow from start to finish. [10:46] After that, focus on the proof. Show how you apply the how in your own business. These are real time examples or success stories from your customers. [15:32] Action steps: Write out this framework and look at your content and see where you're using the steps. Then start with one piece of content and apply this framework! Rate, Review, & Subscribe on Apple Podcasts
‘I love Amy and Online Marketing Made Easy.’ here! This helps me support more people — just like you — move toward the online life and business that they desire. Click here, scroll to the bottom, tap to rate with five stars, and select “Write a Review.” Then be sure to let me know what you loved most about the episode!
Also, if you haven’t done so already, subscribe to the podcast. I’m adding a bunch of bonus episodes to the feed and, if you’re not subscribed, there’s a good chance you’ll miss out. Subscribe now!

#378: Could A 4-Day Work Week Fit Your Business?

If you’ve ever thought about how it might look to work less days in your business, check out the experiment my team and I are in the middle of testing.
When I first pitched the shorter work week idea to my leadership team, well… I was met with crickets. The idea of the work week happening only Monday through Thursday felt a bit unattainable.
And while I was really excited about the idea myself, I know the team’s concerns were valid and so we agreed to try it for 90 days as an experiment.
Right now we’re 60 days in, and have uncovered some really interesting stuff that I wanted to share with you.
Since I’m a big believer in going first and showing what’s possible for you, it’s my hope that this episode helps show you what you need to know about the 4-day work week process -- especially if you’ve been thinking about ways to add more time back into your week.
You’ll also learn more about:

WHY a shorter week was something I wanted to implement and how our team why might spark some ideas for you Processes to set into place when it comes to your team, communication, and what the new work week looks like The different categories to create plans for as you look at your day-to-day systems and expectations The 3 MUST ASK questions you need to answer before making the leap and how they’ll help you determine if this is for you If reading those highlights pulls at your imagination strings and gets you thinking about your own work schedule -- grab your notebook and pen -- because this is definitely a note taking episode.
Here’s a glance at this episode.
[02:21] Learn some of the reasons why my team and I have decided to test out doing a 4-day work week. [06:36] Read the book Shorter: Work Better, Smarter, and Less Here's How. [11:38] Get clear with your team, if you have one, how you want to organize and go about preparing for the 4day work week. What are concerns that come up and how can you troubleshoot them? [15:05] Sit down and discuss any issues that may come up, and create a guideline document to help guide your team. [19:44] Find out the tools we use to make our 4-day work week efficient and possible. [22:33] Set a date and time to meet with your team to see how the experiment is working and how you can improve or pivot. [36:59] Action Steps: How will this professionally benefit you? How will this personally benefit you? What will it mean if you don't move to a four-day work week? Get clear on these answers, start with step one, and read the book Shorter. Rate, Review, & Subscribe on Apple Podcasts
‘I love Amy and Online Marketing Made Easy.’ here! This helps me support more people — just like you — move toward the online life and business that they desire. Click here, scroll to the bottom, tap to rate with five stars, and select “Write a Review.” Then be sure to let me know what you loved most about the episode!
Also, if you haven’t done so already, subscribe to the podcast. I’m adding a bunch of bonus episodes to the feed and, if you’re not subscribed, there’s a good chance you’ll miss out. Subscribe now!

#377: How To Re-engage Your Email List

If your email list has been on your mind and you know it’s time to hit ‘send’ but you’re afraid that you’ll be met with crickets and unsubscribes -- today’s episode is just what you need to gain back your confidence.


The Universe's First Stars Exploded, Sending Out Powerful Jets That Produced New Ones

The universe's first stars were immense, very short-lived fireballs of hydrogen and helium gas, which formed a few hundred million years after the big bang. Scientists have long thought that their lives quickly came to end in cataclysmic explosions known as supernovae that were spherical in shape.

But according to a study published in the Astrophysical Journal, these early stars may have blown up in a more violent, asymmetric fashion, shooting out vast jets which transported the first heavy elements&mdashsuch as carbon, iron and zinc&mdashinto neighboring galaxies.

MIT researchers say that these elements provided the raw material for the formation of a second generation of stars, some of which survive to this day.

The team came to their conclusions after observing one of these ancient surviving stars&mdashknown as HE 1327-2326&mdashwith NASA's Hubble Space Telescope for two weeks in 2016. With the help of an instrument which can measure the abundance of various elements within a star, they noticed that HE 1327-2326 contained high amounts of zinc, which could have originated from an asymmetric explosion of one of the very first stars.

"When a star explodes, some proportion of that star gets sucked into a black hole like a vacuum cleaner," Anna Frebel, an author of the study from MIT, said in a statement. "Only when you have some kind of mechanism, like a jet that can yank out material, can you observe that material later in a next-generation star. And we believe that's exactly what could have happened here."

According to the team, this is the first observational evidence that such an asymmetric supernova occurred in the early universe.

"This changes our understanding of how the first stars exploded," Rana Ezzeddine, lead author of the study, said in the statement.

When HE 1327-2326 was first discovered in 2005, scientists noticed something intriguing: The star had extremely low concentrations of elements heavier than hydrogen and helium. This suggested that it was part of the second generation of stars, given that when it formed, most heavy elements had yet to be created.

"The first stars were so massive that they had to explode almost immediately," Frebel said. "The smaller stars that formed as the second generation are still available today, and they preserve the early material left behind by these first stars. Our star has just a sprinkle of elements heavier than hydrogen and helium, so we know it must have formed as part of the second generation of stars."

In an attempt to explain the unusual composition of HE 1327-2326, the team conducted thousands of computer simulations of supernovae explosions. These tests revealed that the only scenario that could explain its makeup was an asymmetrical supernova of an early star shooting out jets of material.

A supernova of this type would have been unimaginably explosive, blowing up with a nonillion times more power than a hydrogen bomb, the researchers say. (A nonillion is 1 with 30 zeroes following.)

"We found this first supernova was much more energetic than people have thought before, about five to 10 times more," Ezzeddine said. "In fact, the previous idea of the existence of a dimmer supernova to explain the second-generation stars may soon need to be retired."

In fact, the team think these supernovae were so powerful that they shot heavy elements into neighboring "virgin" galaxies" which contained no fully-formed stars.

"Once you have some heavy elements in a hydrogen and helium gas, you have a much easier time forming stars, especially little ones," Frebel said. "The working hypothesis is, maybe second generation stars of this kind formed in these polluted virgin systems, and not in the same system as the supernova explosion itself, which is always what we had assumed, without thinking in any other way. So this is opening up a new channel for early star formation."


How Do Stars Produce and Release Energy?

You don’t have to be a scientist to know that stars shine. It’s what they’re known for. But how and why they shine was unknown for thousands of years, and only became clear in the 20th century, as humans puzzled out the power of nuclear fusion .

To understand how stars shine, it’s important to know one more basic fact about stars : they’re incredibly massive. The presence of that much material in one area gives rise to a gravitational force strong enough to dictate the path of planets billions of miles away. Close up, that gravity crunches atoms together. And squeezing two atoms into one creates a powerful burst of energy, as humans witnessed firsthand when they built their own fusion bombs . Stars spend most of their lives repetitively compressing two hydrogen atoms into a single helium atom – plus a lot of energy , which is released as light and heat.

Stars can squeeze various types of atomic fuel together, and it’s through this process that we get almost every element in the universe. The Big Bang only created hydrogen, helium, and a tiny bit of lithium. Stars created everything else , including most of the atoms in your body.

The energy that process releases is actually what keeps the star’s gravity from collapsing it entirely. A star lives while there’s balance between the outward push of energy from nuclear fusion and the inward press of gravity. A star dies when it runs out of fuel and the balancing act ends.


US officials confirm China deleted early COVID-19 data

For the first time in history, scientists have detected the energy cycle that fuels the stars.

In an article published Wednesday in the scientific journal Nature, physicists described their discovery of neutrinos, confirming a nearly century old, 1930s-era theoretical prediction about how the energy of stars is created, NBC reported.

“It’s really a breakthrough for solar and stellar physics,” Gioacchino Ranucci, one of the project’s researchers from the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics, told the outlet.

The discovery is being lauded as a landmark finding and one of the greatest discoveries in physics to happen in the last 1,000 years, the outlet said.

The neutrinos can be traced to the fusion of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen, also known as the CNO cycle, that happens inside the sun.

Scientists used the ultra-sensitive Borexino detector at INFN’s Gran Sasso laboratory outside of Rome, the largest underground research facility in the world, to make the discovery.

Using the machine, physicists were able to see the main nuclear reaction that the majority of stars, including our sun, uses to fuse hydrogen into helium, which produces the universe’s main fuel source, the outlet reported.

The discovery is the only direct sign of CNO fusion that’s ever been seen anywhere.

“This is the first evidence that the CNO cycle is at work in the sun and the stars,” Ranucci told the outlet.

“This discovery takes us a step closer to understanding the composition of the core of our sun, and the formation of heavy stars,” added particle physicist Gabriel Orebi Gann from the University of California, Berkeley, who is an author in the study but didn’t participate in the research.

Orebi Gann said the new ability to detect neutrinos can be used to investigate some of the universe’s most darkest, unreachable corners, NBC reported.

The scientist further explained the asymmetry between neutrinos and their antiparticles could explain the mystery of how the earth even came to be in the first place and why there’s anything at all.


PRODUCTION CREDITS

Origins: Back to the Beginning

Hosted and Narrated by
by Neil deGrasse Tyson

Edited by
Simon Holland

Written, Produced and Directed by
Thomas Levenson

Origins Executive Producer
Thomas Levenson

Origins Executive Editor
Neil deGrasse Tyson

Director of Photography
Robert Elfstrom

Co-Producer
Craig Ginsberg

Origins Project Manager
Marie Wiljanen

Origins Project Development
Larry Klein

Series Science Advisors
Alan Dressler
Sandra Faber

Sound Recordists
Ray Daye
Doug Dunderdale
Roger Phenix

Gaffers
Andrew Eckmann
Witt Monts

Art Director
William Barclay

Director of Archive Research
Karen Colbron

Production Assistant
Chetin Chabuk

Animation created by
Edgeworx

Animation Supervisor
John Bair

Music
Rob Morsberger

First Stars Simulation
Tom Abel
Greg Bryan
Michael Norman

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Ralf Kähler
Tom Abel

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Anna Davis

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Michael H. Amundson

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Jim Sullivan

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Stills courtesy of
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Special Thanks
Wilson Chao
Julia Cort
Richard Ellis
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Conn Hallinan
Emma Katz
Wm. Keck Observatory
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Henry Seidman Levenson
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This new Periodic Table shows the astounding origins of every atom in your body

In the first episode of his famous TV series about space, "Cosmos: A Personal Voyage," the late astronomer Carl Sagan wastes no time dramatically setting the stage.

"The surface of the Earth is the shore of the cosmic ocean," Sagan says. "Some part of our being knows this is where we came from. We long to return, and we can, because the cosmos is also within us. We're made of star stuff. We are a way for the cosmos to know itself."

Building on that spirit, Jennifer A. Johnson, an astronomer at the Ohio State University, has hacked the periodic table of elements to show exactly what kind of "star stuff" Sagan is talking about, and how much.

Her graphic below, which we first saw in a tweet by science writer Corey Powell, shows the violent cosmic origins of every element in the solar system — including all of the atoms in our bodies:

Johnson said the idea for plotting out the origins of periodic elements started at a meeting 8 years ago with fellow astronomer Inese Ivans, but that early attempts (like this one) were unsatisfying.

20 years getting [. ] this info into your brain, the main difficulty is not wanting to make the plot too complicated to include every little detail," Johnson told Business Insider in an email. "In several cases I needed to say 'OK, that's close enough to get the point across'."

She ultimately color-coded six types of cosmic events that can forge new atoms: the Big Bang, cosmic rays, merging neutron stars, and three different classes of exploding stars. Each portion of color shows the relative amount of element the event made.

It shows that many critical elements in our bodies — oxygen (O), phosphorus (P), and sulfur (S) — came out of giant exploding stars called supernova, while others — like carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) — came from dying, sun-like stars. Hydrogen (H), meanwhile, which is a key component of water, came out of the Big Bang.

Johnson said all the scientific evidence behind the chart "goes back decades" and is still evolving.

"You have stars with the mass of the Sun dying, you have massive stars and white dwarfs blowing up, you have neutron stars [. ] then swirling into each other and merging," she said. "It's hard work!"

The elements technetium (Tc) and promethium (Pm) are gray, Johnson says, "because the only time we see them is when we make them in colliders or nuclear bombs."

Johnson said one thing her chart doesn't show is how long it took to get each element. To get all the core elements of life in the right abundances, for example, plus rock-building elements — magnesium (Mg), silicon (Si), and iron (Fe) — it took billions upon billions of years.

"So right after the Big Bang — no planets, no life until stars had time to enrich the Universe," she said. "'So 'long ago, in a galaxy far, far, away' can't have been too long ago!"

If the contrast isn't shining through very well, Johnson also made a colorblind-friendly version of the chart.