Astronomy

In 31.5kyr, Epsilon Eridani and Luyten 726-8 will be < 1ly close; but how distant from the Solar system?

In 31.5kyr, Epsilon Eridani and Luyten 726-8 will be < 1ly close; but how distant from the Solar system?

Greetings! Based on Wikipedia and more precisely this paper, it is said that, in about 31,500 years, the stars Epsilon Eridani and Luyten 726-8AB will "meet" at a very close distance (less than 1 light year); I found that anecdote very interesting in the context of some SF writings I'm trying to do (not in English, quite obviously!) to bring some "subtle consistency" in it, but I was unable to either answer nor calculate with my very little knowledge of astronomy this simple question: to what distance will those stars be from the Solar System in 31,500 years?

Thank you very much for your help!

P.S.: oh, a friend of mine told me that my question could lack of useful information, such as the current distance of each of those stars from the Solar System, so here there are:

  • Current distance from Epsilon Eridani to Solar System: 10.5ly
  • Current distance from Luyten 726-8 to Solar System: 8.7ly

  • Other info about Epsilon Eridani: declination 9.46° south of the celestial equator (no idea if this can help) | Right Ascension 03h 32m 55.84496s | Radial velocity +15.5 ± 0.9 km/s

  • Other info about Luyten 726-8: declination -17° 57' 01.8" | Right Ascension 01h 39m 01.54s | Radial velocity +29.0 km/s

[EDIT] As suggested in the comments, I added the Right Ascension and Radial Velocity for those two stars and I'm looking for the "Velocity vectors" (even if I have no idea what this means)

[EDIT 2] Added links to the Extended Hipparcos Compilation (XHIP) Epsilon Eridani and Luyten 726-8AB pages with all sort of info I don't understand, but there are things such as "Heliocentric Velocity" on 3 axis, maybe it can help. (Got the XHIP thing thanks to the following thread: Position and velocity vectors of nearby stars?)


These stars are currently moving away from us, in the case of Epsilon Eridani, at 15.5 km/s. In 31500 years they will be further away than they are now, the distance can be calculated by applying Pythagoras' theorem to the distances and velocities you mention.

It turns out that Eps Eri will be about 12.2 light years from Earth, and Lutyen 726-8 will be 12.6 light years.

They won't be particularly close together in the sky, I estimate about 3 degrees, and they will be even dimmer than they are now, though Eps Eri will still be a naked eye object.


Astronomy &ndash Nearby Objects and the Grand PictureNearby Stars, The Milky Way, The Local Group of Galaxies, M 31 in Andromeda and Laniakea

Some other stars have a high &ldquoproper motion&rdquo, that is, they move fastest across the sky and are therefore quite close to us. This includes Teegarden&rsquos star, which is an M-type brown dwarf in Aries, about 12 light years from the Solar System. Despite its proximity (the 24 th nearest) it is very dim and can only be seen through very large telescopes it was discovered in 2003.

The second map shows all the star systems within 14 light-years of the Sun (shown as &ldquoSol&rdquo, the Latin name of the Sun &ndash not to be confused with the length of a Martian day, also called a &ldquosol&rdquo). It does not include four brown dwarfs discovered after 2009. Double and triple stars are shown &ldquostacked&rdquo, but the true location is the star closest to the central plane. The colours are derived from conventional names for the spectral types and do not represent their observed colours. The coordinate system is right ascension and declination. Hours of RA are marked, as well as distance in multiples of 5 light-years.

At a distance of up to 16.3 light-years from the Solar System, there are 55 stellar systems containing a total of 56 hydrogen-fusing stars (of which 46 are red dwarfs), 14 brown dwarfs, and 4 white dwarfs. Despite the relative proximity of these objects to the Earth, only nine of them have an apparent magnitude less than 6.5, which means only about 13% of these objects can be observed with the naked eye. Besides the Sun, only three are first-magnitude stars: Alpha Centauri, Sirius, and Procyon. All of these objects are located in the Local Bubble, a region within the Orion &ndash Cygnus Arm of the Milky Way Galaxy.

. continuing from our look at the Solar System, the environs of our own star, we reach.


Contents

Epsilon Eridani, the Bayer designation for this star, was established in 1603 as part of the Uranometria, a star catalogue produced by German celestial cartographer Johann Bayer. His catalogue assigned letters from the Greek alphabet to groups of stars belonging to the same visual magnitude class in each constellation, beginning with alpha (α) for a star in the brightest class. However, Bayer made no attempt to arrange stars by relative brightness within each class. Thus, although Epsilon is the fifth letter in the Greek alphabet, [ 25 ] the star is the tenth brightest star in Eridanus. [ 26 ] The star catalogue of English astronomer John Flamsteed, published in 1712, gave this star the Flamsteed designation 18 Eridani as it was the eighteenth catalogued star in the constellation of Eridanus by order of increasing right ascension. [ 2 ] In 1918 this star appeared in the Henry Draper Catalogue with the designation HD� and a preliminary spectral classification of K0. [ 27 ]

Based on observations between 1800 and 1880, Epsilon Eridani was found to have a large proper motion across the celestial sphere, which was estimated at an angular velocity of three arcseconds annually. [ 28 ] This movement implied it was relatively close to the Sun, [ 29 ] making it a star of interest for the purpose of trigonometric parallax measurements. This process involves recording the position of the star as the Earth moves around the Sun, which allows the star's distance to be estimated. [ 28 ] From 1881 to 1883, American astronomer William L. Elkin used a heliometer at the Royal Observatory at the Cape of Good Hope, South Africa to compare the position of Epsilon Eridani with two nearby stars. From these observations, a parallax of 0.14 ± 0.02 arcseconds was calculated. [ 30 ] [ 31 ] By 1917, observers had refined their parallax estimate to 0.317 arcseconds. [ 32 ] The modern value of 0.3109 arcseconds is equivalent to a distance of about 10.50 ly (3.22 parsecs). [ 1 ]

Circumstellar discoveries

Based on unexplained changes in the position of Epsilon Eridani between 1938 and 1972, Dutch-American astronomer Peter van de Kamp proposed that an unseen companion with an orbital period of 25 years was causing gravitational perturbations in the star's position. [ 33 ] This claim was refuted in 1993 by German astronomer Wulff-Dieter Heintz and the false detection was blamed on a systematic error in the photographic plates. [ 34 ]

Launched in 1983, the space telescope IRAS detected infrared emissions from stars near to the Sun. [ 35 ] Two years later, the presence of an excess infrared emission close to Epsilon Eridani was announced, which indicated a disk of fine-grained cosmic dust was orbiting the star. [ 36 ] This debris disk has been extensively studied since that time. Evidence for a planetary system was discovered in 1998 by the observation of asymmetries in this dust ring. These clumps of dust could be explained by gravitational interaction with a planet orbiting just inside the ring of dust. [ 37 ]

From 1980 to 2000, a team of astronomers led by American Artie P. Hatzes made radial velocity observations of Epsilon Eridani, measuring changes in motion of the star along the line of sight to the Earth, which provided evidence of the gravitational effect of a planet orbiting the star with a period of about seven years. [ 17 ] Although there is a high level of noise in the radial velocity data due to magnetic activity in the star's photosphere, [ 38 ] any periodicity caused by this magnetic activity is expected to show a strong correlation with variations in emission lines of ionized calcium (the Ca II H and K lines). Because no such correlation was found, a planetary companion was deemed the most likely cause. [ 39 ] This discovery was supported by astrometric measurements of Epsilon Eridani made between 2001 and 2003 with the Hubble Space Telescope, which showed evidence for gravitational perturbation of the star by a planet. [ 40 ]

American astrophysicist Alice C. Quillen and her student Stephen Thorndike performed computer simulations of the structure of the dust disk around the star. Their model suggested that the clumping of the dust particles could be explained by the presence of a second planet in an eccentric orbit. They announced this finding in 2002. [ 41 ]

SETI and proposed exploration

In 1960, American physicist Philip Morrison and Italian physicist Giuseppe Cocconi proposed that extraterrestrial civilizations might be using radio signals for communication. [ 42 ] Project Ozma, headed by American astronomer Frank Drake, used the Tatel Telescope to search for such signals from the nearby Sun-like stars Epsilon Eridani and Tau Ceti. They were observed at the emission frequency of neutral hydrogen, 1,420 MHz. No signals of intelligent extraterrestrial origin were detected. [ 43 ] The experiment was repeated by Drake in 2010, with the same negative result. [ 42 ] Despite this lack of success, Epsilon Eridani made its way into science fiction literature and television shows for many years following news of Drake's initial experiment. [ 44 ]

In Habitable Planets for Man, a 1964 RAND Corporation study by American space scientist Stephen H. Dole, the odds of a habitable planet being in orbit around Epsilon Eridani were estimated at 3.3%. Among the known stars within 22 ly, it was listed with the 14 stars that were thought most likely to have a habitable planet. [ 45 ]

A new strategy in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) was proposed by American space scientist William I. McLaughlin in 1977. He suggested that widely observable events such as nova explosions might be used by intelligent extraterrestrials to synchronize the transmission and reception of their signals. This idea was tested from the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in 1988, which used outbursts of Nova Cygni 1975 as the timer. Fifteen days of observation showed no anomalous radio signals coming from Epsilon Eridani. [ 46 ]

Because of the proximity and Sun-like properties of this star, it was considered as one of the targets for interstellar travel by American physicist Robert L. Forward in 1985. [ 47 ] The following year, Epsilon Eridani was suggested as one of several targets in the Project Daedalus paper study by the British Interplanetary Society. [ 48 ] It has continued to be among the targets of such proposals, as with Project Icarus in 2011. [ 49 ]

Based on its location within 23.5 ly (7.2 parsecs), Epsilon Eridani was among the target stars of Project Phoenix, a 1995 microwave survey for signals from extraterrestrial intelligence. [ 50 ] The project had checked about 800 stars by 2004, but had not yet detected an unimpeachable signal. [ 51 ]


Sirius Kingdom [ edit | edit source ]

See also Sirius Kingdom
Has 13 Known Planets in 4 systems

    (28.5ly 8.6 ly) - Sirius is also known as Alpha Canis Majoris and Gliese 244. The brightest star in the sky. A hot blue-white main sequence star with a white dwarf (the "pup") orbiting it. Orbit distance varies between 8.1 and 31.5 ly and takes 50 years to navigate. The habitable zone of Star A is centered 4.25 AU from the star and may be disrupted due to the presence of Star B. Long thought to be a part of the Ursa Major Moving Group (also called the "Sirius Group"), it was found to be too young to be a member and not heading in the right direction. The brightest star within a large distance from the Sun. Star B is about the same mass as the Sun, but is almost the same size as the Earth. It may have evolved from a 5 solar massed B-type main sequence star. It is the nearest and first discovered white dwarf star. Dust has been detected from the system, probably from material sluffed off from Star B. A search in 2008 using high contrast imaging for planets within 10 Jupiter masses within 25 AU of the binary star turned up negative.
      (7.5 ly) - Kapteyn's Star is also known as VZ Pic, Gl 191, HD 33793, and Cordoba Zone 5 hours 243. Kapteyn noticed that a star was missing from a catalog until its new position was found. Has the second highest proper motion of any stars. Also informally called Proxima Pictoris. Nearby large and old Red Dwarf star system and nearest Halo object thought to be a remnant of the nearest and largest global cluster, Omega Centauri, which is 16,000 ly away and shredded by the Milky way 11.5 BYA, and born while that was still a separate galaxy. 2.5 times as old as the Sun and born when the Universe was only 2 BYO. Was within 3 light years of Epsilon Eridani 31,500 years ago. Will be on the other side of the galaxy in 100 MY. Is a sub-dwarf or main sequence star. Has two planets. The first is at least a 4.5 ME Super Earth (0.16 AU) and is the oldest Potentially Habitable Planet. The second is over 7 ME and beyond the HZ (0.3 AU).

    Solar Principality [ edit | edit source ]

        (8.6 ly) - Our home star system. Contains 4 terrestrial planets, 4 gas giant planets, several dwarf planets, an asteroid belt, and a kuiper belt, around a G-Class yellow dwarf star. Contains the only known habitable planet, Earth.
          (6.0 ly) - Barnard's Star is also known as Gliese 699 and informally as Proxima Ophiuchi. Named for the astronomer E. E. Barnard, who discovered it in 1916 and was the first to measure its proper motion. Second closest star system to the Sun and the one with the highest proper motion in the sky - due to its rapid approach to the Sun. Will get as close as 3.8 ly away in 12,000 years. A red dwarf thought early on to have a planet around it found due to radial velocity method, which has been disproved. A super earth has been detected at Mercury-like distances, but beyond the frost line. Life could be possible if an additional source of heat was provided. A potential target for the 1970's Project Daedelus. The star is very ancient 11-12 Billion Years Old, and is the nearest inactive Red Dwarf Star. It may take another 40 Billion Years before it cools to become a Black Dwarf. Astronomers were surprised to discover that it was a flare star in 2003, and dubbed it V2500 Ophiuchi. (7.9 ly) - Wolf 359 is also called Gl 406, and CN Leonis and informally called Proxima Leonis. Third nearest star system to the Sun and the nearest star with no known planets. It is one of the smallest Red Dwarf stars known and is a flare star and the M6 V spectral standard star. Its proper motion was first measured by German astronomer Max Wolf in 1917. It was the lowest mass and faintest star known until the discovery of VB 10 in 1944. Its temperature is so low that chemical compounds can exist in it, which is rare for a star. It is a relatively young star, less than a billion years old.

        Alpha Centauri Principality [ edit | edit source ]

            (9.5 ly 4.3 ly) - Alpha Centauri is also known as Rigil Kentaurus. A is also known as HD 128620 and HR 5459, B is HD 128621 and HR 5460, and C is Proxima Centauri. It is the nearest star system to the Sun. Contains a yellow dwarf star a little bigger than the Sun and an orange star a little smaller orbiting each other orbiting each other about the distance Uranus is from the Sun (varies from Saturn like to Neptune like), as well as a distant Red Dwarf companion Proxima that may or may not be orbiting the other two.

              Stellar fingerprinting suggests a high probability that a planet orbits star A, due to dearth of Iron around star. Russian astronomers announced the detection of a second planet orbiting the binary pair at 80 AU with a 100 year period, which appears to be false. The stars in the system will become markedly closer together in 2016, making observations much more difficult and one follow up failed to find it. The system is the first target for the European Cheops exoplanet space telescope.

              A planet was thought to have been discovered around star B and detected by HARPS. It would have been an Earth-massed rocky-iron planet with no atmosphere at epistellar distances around the orange dwarf star B. This would have been the least massive planet found around a sunlike star. The planet was informally and controversially named by Uwingu during a fund raising naming contest Albertus Alauda, after a participant's grandfather. Earthlike planets are not detectable in the habitable zone with present radial velocity methods. Technique for detection of planet is a source of doubt for some and it has yet to be independently verified. A team thought they might have detected a transit of this planet, but further observations showed the timing wasn't consistent. It is possible that a second further out (20.4 day period) Earth-sized planet is altering the transit times of the first. A cheap crowdfunded satellite devoted to studying this star could confirm the planets. The star was observed to be a good candidate to host a "super Habitable" planet, which would have 25% more gravity than the Earth, shallow seas, flatter landscape, higher atmospheric pressure, and the 6 BYO star would be stable for life longer.

              Proxima, a small flare star, was discovered in 1915 by Robert Ines, who named it. Long suspected planet around Proxima found not to exist. The Pale Red Dot project is dedicated to finding a planet around Proxima using dopplar spectrometry. As Proxima passes in front of two stars (once in 2014, again in 2016), any planets within 5 AU should be detectable via microlensing using the HST. It is known that no planets of Neptune sized mass exist within 1 AU and no Jovians with periods up to 1000 days, or transiting planets exist. An Earth-like planet in the habitable zone was discovered around Proxima Centauri. In 2017, a large stellar flare erupted and bombarded the planet, making it likely that the atmosphere has been completely stripped away by events such as this and not a good candidate for life. It was thought that a lot of dust existed in the system, making it feasable that the star had a rich complement of planets, but this seems to not be the case.


          The Harvard&ndashSmithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) is a research institute which carries out a broad program of research in astronomy, astrophysics, earth and space sciences, and science education.

          A heliometer (from Greek ἥ&lambda&iota&omicron&sigmaf hḗlios "sun" and measure) is an instrument originally designed for measuring the variation of the sun's diameter at different seasons of the year, but applied now to the modern form of the instrument which is capable of much wider use.


          Interplanetary medium

          Along with light, the Sun radiates a continuous stream of charged particles (a plasma) known as the solar wind. This stream of particles spreads outwards at roughly 1.5 million kilometres per hour, [ 32 ] creating a tenuous atmosphere (the heliosphere) that permeates the Solar System out to at least 100 AU (see heliopause). [ 33 ] This is known as the interplanetary medium. Activity on the Sun's surface, such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections, disturb the heliosphere, creating space weather and causing geomagnetic storms. [ 34 ] The largest structure within the heliosphere is the heliospheric current sheet, a spiral form created by the actions of the Sun's rotating magnetic field on the interplanetary medium. [ 35 ] [ 36 ]

          Earth's magnetic field stops its atmosphere from being stripped away by the solar wind. Venus and Mars do not have magnetic fields, and as a result, the solar wind causes their atmospheres to gradually bleed away into space. [ 37 ] Coronal mass ejections and similar events blow a magnetic field and huge quantities of material from the surface of the Sun. The interaction of this magnetic field and material with Earth's magnetic field funnels charged particles into the Earth's upper atmosphere, where its interactions create aurorae seen near the magnetic poles.

          Cosmic rays originate outside the Solar System. The heliosphere partially shields the Solar System, and planetary magnetic fields (for those planets that have them) also provide some protection. The density of cosmic rays in the interstellar medium and the strength of the Sun's magnetic field change on very long timescales, so the level of cosmic radiation in the Solar System varies, though by how much is unknown. [ 38 ]

          The interplanetary medium is home to at least two disc-like regions of cosmic dust. The first, the zodiacal dust cloud, lies in the inner Solar System and causes zodiacal light. It was likely formed by collisions within the asteroid belt brought on by interactions with the planets. [ 39 ] The second extends from about 10 AU to about 40 AU, and was probably created by similar collisions within the Kuiper belt. [ 40 ] [ 41 ]


          Wednesday, 22 September 2010

          Orbit - Is the North star going to stay in the North sky?

          The Sun is of course in motion with respect to other stars in our Galaxy, but it does not move quickly compared with the vast distances involved. For instance it takes about 220 million years for our Sun to orbit the Galaxy once, travelling at around 200 km/s. The stars that are closest to the Sun tend to be orbiting in more-or-less the same direction and at a similar speed (that is why they are in the vicinity of the Sun).

          Thinking specifically about Polaris. There are three components of its motion with respect to the Sun - two tangential directions on the plane of the sky and a line of sight velocity.

          Using the SIMBAD CDS database we see that Polaris has a line of sight velocity of 16 km/s towards the Sun and tangential motions of 28 km/s in the right ascension direction and 7 km/s in the decreasing declination direction.

          This sounds a lot, but a velocity of 1 km/s means it takes about 300,000 years for the star to move 1 light year, and Polaris is about 400 light years from Earth.

          So, given its net velocity, the position of Polaris with respect to us will show significant changes (of degrees) on timescales of hundreds of thousands to millions of years.

          It is heading southward in the sky, but will take around 25 million years to cross the equator at the rate it is travelling now.

          You say that the constellations are "constant". Yes, they are on human timescales, but the motions of the stars both radially and tangentially is routinely measured. If you waited some millions of years, the constellations would look very different.

          NB: I am ignoring the precession of the Earth's rotation axis, since this is just a rotation of the coordinate system and not a change of position of the stars with respect to the Earth.


          Spirituality, Dreams and Prophecy

          Recently I have been doing a series of blogs researching the reality of UFOs and extraterrestrial contacts. In modern times mass public interest in UFOs and extraterrestrials began with the crash of one or more flying saucers in Roswell New Mexico in 1947, but evidence of such contacts can be traced back to antiquity. In the 18th century Emanuel Swedenborg claimed to have come in touch with extraterrestrial humans not from our planet, and before I started on this research I thought for sure Swedenborg was mistaken. Most do: the U.S. Government and NASA says there is no evidence of extraterrestrial life on other planets on our solar system, which Swedenborg said were inhabited. But then I found incontrovertible evidence that NASA tampers with photos in order to hide any evidence of UFOs or extraterrestrials on other planets in our solar system: see Emanuel Swedenborg was Right, and NASA is Hiding It. Note that NASA has done this AGAIN. In 2012, the Grail satellites sent back a lot of new images mapping the surface of the Moon. In one of them, a triangular shaped UFO can be seen hiding in the shadow of a crater. It is huge. The researcher had downloaded the image, and subsequently NASA touched up the photo to hide the image once they realized they let one slip through. Check out this video: [UPDATE: VIDEO TAKEN DOWN, SEE BELOW]


          UPDATE: The above video was taken down, and the account deleted, for "third party infringement." It showed an original NASA photo of a triangular object in a moon crater hiding in the shadow with an orb above it, and then later the published version of the photo with those images brushed out. If this was taken down for "third party infringement", that means the party that took down the account was NASA. These were NASA photos of the Moon from the Grail satellite. Even before it was taken down, in point #1 below I indicated that if NASA ever finds evidence of extraterrestrial life - more advanced than ours - they will hide it from the public.

          So, in light of that, check out this picture of a cylindrical object on the Moon from the Apollo 15 mission:

          It is legitimate, not doctored. The original photo is here: Apollo Image Atlas AS15-P-9625. So its out there in the open, so what do "they" do? They spread false disinformation by creating a duplicate, falsified image, and invent a hoax of another secret Apollo mission to examine an ancient alien spacecraft. Other's have already caught the hoax to hide this photo so I won't repeat it here. That's what happens with a leak - mix it in with false information so the public rejects it. [END OF UPDATE]

          So from this, and the other evidence I showed earlier, we can draw two conclusions:

          So, just because our scientific data and knowledge concerning our solar system may be in disagreement with what Swedenborg said concerning extraterrestrial life, that is no reason to reject Swedenborg offhand. In every other case where I could verify his statements, I have been able to do so. Case in point: Swedenborg had mentioned a lost book of the Bible called Jasher, I found it, and the contents of the book match what he had seen in his visions. For that reason I included at the end of the multi-volume work of all his published writings, The Divine Revelation of the New Jerusalem. See Jasher: the Lost book of the Bible, as foreseen by Swedenborg, and The Book of Jasher: a lost ancient book of the Bible, or a medieval forgery?.

          As for what Swedenborg states concerning extraterrestrial life in our solar system and beyond, he did that by contacting them by going out of his body, sort of like remote viewing (see Astral Projection and Out of the Body Experiences (OOBE)). Swedenborg accidentally confirmed his remote viewing capabilities when a fire broke out in Stockholm which threatened to burn down his house with all of his writings - this was verified by none other than the German philosopher Imanuel Kant (see The Confirmed Clairvoyance of Emanuel Swedenborg). Swedenborg kept this secret as it is better for people to examine the truth of the spiritual knowledge he imparted, according to rational thought.

          In Extraterrestrial Contact from Iarga: their Origin and Philosophy, not only is there some independent evidence that this contact was valid, but also the contactee was a rich businessman from the Netherlands who had no reason to lie about it. There is also direct and circumstantial evidence that these amphibian extraterrestrials - the "Iargans" - originate from the solar system of Epsilon Eridani, about 10.5 light years away from our solar system. And they may have been observing us for a long time. Here is a map of the closest stars to our solar system:

          This is very similar to the Oannes mythology from ancient Mesopotamia, which I already discusse in the previous blog post. Another interesting note: the Nommo are described as hermaphroditic. This is very close to what Stefan Denaerde had seen concerning the extraterrestrials from Iarga: there was very littel noticeable differences between their males and females. If extraterrestrials from Epsilon Eridani travelled over 10 light years to reach our solar system, it is very likely they had also visited (and possibly colonized) the Sirius star system.

          Lately an interesting question popped in my head: among the extraterrestrial human races that Swedenborg encountered, was one of them from the planet Iarga, which is perhaps in the solar system of Epsilon Eridani?

          Emanuel Swedenborg originally described his extraterrestrial contacts in his massive work Heavenly Arcana (aka Arcana Coelestia, or Heavenly Secrets). He then extracted these encounters and published them later in a smaller work entitled Earths in the Universe. In the Heavenly Arcana, he described his extraterrestrial contacts in the following order:

          In Heavenly Arcana, Swedenborg describes different planets inhabited by extraterrestrials in their order of distance from our Sun, except for the Moon. However in Earths of the Universe, for some reason he changes the order in which he relates his contacts, and drops the account of one of the other solar systems. If that is the case, is it possible that Swedenborg was shown extraterrestrials on other solar systems that were in closest distance to our own solar system? That would seem logical. If that is the case, does one of them happen to describe the planet Iarga, as described by Stefan in his work UFO Contact from the Planet Iarga? There are not that many solar systems in close vicinity with our solar system - within ten light years of our Sun there are about ten other solar systems. This question really intrigued me.

          So let's assume that Swedenborg may be describing extraterrestrial races on solar systems that are in close vicinity with our Sun in terms of light years. There is one passage in particular that I remembered, and this concerns the "Second Earth in the Starry Heaven." Swedenborg did not know which solar system it was, so hereafter I will refer to it as the "second earth." Concerning the sun of that inhabited planet, Swedenborg wrote this:

          As stated before in Extraterrestrial Contact from Iarga: their Origin and Philosophy, I had identified the star Epsilon Eridani as the solar system for the planet Iarga. But there is one other point made about their sun: it is said that is "among the lesser stars." This excludes the Procyon, which is not only among the brightest stars in our skies but its Sun is larger than ours. Procyon is also a binary star system, thus it is unlikely to have a planet in the habitable zone. So there is one choice, and once choice only: the star Epsilon Eridani. In fact, I looked through a list of the 26 closest solar systems and I cannot find any other candidate.

          So, does Swedenborg's description of the extraterrestrials of the second earth match the description of the Iargans as described by Stefan Denaerde in his book, UFO Contact from the Planet Iarga? Well let's take a look.

          One of the first observations Swedenborg made when he encountered these extraterrestrials from the second earth is that they were highly intelligent, in a higher state of intelligence than he, and he compared their insight to the far-sighted vision of eagles. Swedenborg himself was a child prodigy and is estimated to have an IQ of over 200. In the book UFO Contact from Iarga, it is quite obvious that the Iargans as a race are much more intelligent than we and have the tendency to examine things to the smallest detail. They love to put a mathematical number on everything to calculate its efficiency. The contactee, Stefan Denaerde, was able to explore their world and become educated about their culture through a holographic image that was projected directly into his mind over a period of 2 days in their flying saucer while it was submerged off the coast of the Netherlands. He was told that they use this holographic imaging system to rapidly teach all their children concerning their knowledge, which is done over many years.

          The above passage shows that their solar system may not be that far from ours. Like the extraterrestrials of Mercury, it may also indicate that they travel among solar systems as well.

          So, not only do these extraterrestrials know who Jesus Christ is, but coincidentally the gospel of John is again quoted in the discussion. This also implies that they are able to travel to our solar system and have been observing us, how else would they know who Jesus Christ is?

          Whereas humans tend to be individual, the Iargans are extremely social. They don't live as a single couple in a household, but each household will contain several couples so that they always do things in a group. As for government, their communist type economy is overseen by different corporations or "trusts," and at the head of each trust there is a president. These presidents may be part of a central planning group for the entire planet.

          So how to the Iargans do it? They all live in groups in apartments that are part of these cylindrical structures, each cylindrical tower can contain about 10,000 residents. In the center of these cylindrical towers they have a garden oasis, which is sheltered from the outside environment:

          So, the comparison with Swedenborg's statement concerning living in groves protected from the rain and sun is interesting. It is not the boughs of the trees providing protection from the weather, but rather the cylindrical structure which surrounds the garden which provides protection from the elements. The parallel, needless to say, is amazing.

          Compare this description to an illustration Stefan Denaerde had made for his book, based on his encounter:

          The Iargans look different, this is perhaps why Swedenborg thought that their face was somewhat of a deformity. When Stefan first saw them, he was most deeply impressed by their eyes. Their eyes do not look smaller, but their pupils are shaped differently - they have rectangular pupils, giving the impression of smaller eyes. Their eyes are also more deeply set into their skull under their brow, perhaps because of the higher wind speeds on Iarga. In Extraterrestrial Contact from Iarga: their Origin and Philosophy, the illustrator for Stefan Denaerde's book mentioned another book that mentioned an alternative way humans could have evolved, where we would have had no protruding nose nor ear lobes. The difference in eyes and nose are the most noticeable features of the Iargans that Stefan described, and these are the exact same features described by Swedenborg.

          As for the Iargans, I did not get a complete picture of how they lived from the book by Stefan Denaerde, but he thought their practices were odd. Although monogamy was implied, they also stated that they allow sexual freedom. In the interview in the previous blog post Stefan Denaerde also described this as well, but I think he implied polygamy. The impression I have is they have one primary monogamous relationship, but one or both partner is allowed to have sexual relationships outside of that marriage. It should be noted that they do not place so much emphasis on sex as humans do. The Iargans also described how they were able to eliminate much evil from their society: when an Iargan reaches a certain age, they are medically and psychologically evaluated to determine if they should be given the "right" to have sexual relationships. Some are apparently not, and I think they call this process "reincarnation selection" - preventing more evil souls from incarnating in bodies. They might do this among the males only, and if so, that would lead to more females than males, perhaps leading to the situation that Swedenborg described.

          I am looking at what I just wrote, and my reaction is one of utter surprise. I can hardly believe it. Two independent accounts, one from an 18th century scientist who had visions of the spiritual world, and another from an extraterrestrial contact with a Dutch businessman in the 1960s. Both contain information that points to the star system of Epsilon Eridani. Neither witness even thought of the star Epsilon Eridani. And when you compare the details of the extraterrestrials in both accounts, they match! Swedenborg's account is so short, and yet he summarizes the main points that desribe the culture of Iarga which are covered in Stefan Denaerde's book, UFO Contact from Iarga. Taken by themselves, perhaps skeptics will doubt, but can anyone doubt when we have two independent sources confirm each other? If anyone told me I would have found direct evidence confirming one of the extraterrestrial races described by Emanuel Swedenborg when I started this research on UFOs months ago, I would have never believed them. I did not make the association between extraterrestrials from Iarga and Emanuel Swedenborg until about a couple of days ago. I am completely surprised.

          If any reader wants to read for themselves the book UFO Contact from Iarga, they can find that book online plus others here: Free On-Line UFO Books. Coincidentally, it was the first random book of a UFO contact I decided to read. Who would have thought it was directly related to Emanuel Swedenborg? His accounts of extraterrestrials can be found interspersed in his massive opus magnum, Heavenly Arcana, or in a smaller condensed form in his work Earths in the Universe which can be found as a volume as part of the work The Final Judgment. Both works can be found together in the work The Divine Revelation of the New Jerusalem (expanded edition). And if Swedenborg's account of extraterrestrials is correct, then perhaps we should pay attention to his accounts of the spiritual realms of the afterlife, and heaven and hell.

          I have to mention one last quote from the book, which I found rather funny. It is interesting to actually get an extraterrestrial viewpoint of our society. Unfortunately, it really does make us look extremely stupid. Stefan Denaerde, capitalist businessman he was, would at times argue with them about their communist economy. Here is one interesting exchange, where the Iargans describe to Stefan how it is different from communism, where it involves some other economic principles based on capitalism:


          TW Piscis Austrini

          This star is located about 24.9 light-years (ly) away from our Sun, Sol, at the eastern edge (22:56:24.1-31:33:56.0, ICRS 2000.0) of Constellation Pisces Austrinus (or Australis), the Southern Fish -- southeast of Fomalhaut (Alpha Piscis Austrini) and northeast of Delta Piscis Austrini. Although smaller and much dimmer than Sol, some Humans may able to see TW Piscis Austrini (TW PsA) without a telescope in Earth's night sky. According to the SIMBAD Astronomical Database, it is also a flare star.

          The proximity of TW Piscis to Fomalhaut was first reported in 1897 by Thomas Jefferson Jackson See (1866-1962). Subsequently, the two stars have been determined to be distant physical companions (D. Barrado y Navascues, 1998). However, another K5 dwarf (LTT 8273) later observed in proper motion studies is now believed to be an optical companion, although it also may be a remaining member of a low-density star cluster including Fomalhaut, Vega, and Castor that has gradually dispersed over hundreds of millions of years.

          As a relatively bright star in Earth's night sky, TW PsA is catalogued as Harvard Revised (HR) 8721, a numbering system derived from the 1908 Revised Harvard Photometry catalogue of stars visible to many Humans with the naked eye. The HR system has been preserved through its successor, the Yale Bright Star Catalogue -- updated and expanded through the hard work of E. Dorrit Hoffleit and others. HR 8721 is also listed as HD 216803 in the Henry Draper (1837-82) Catalogue with extension (HDE), a massive photographic stellar spectrum survey carried out by Annie Jump Cannon (1863-1941) and Edward Charles Pickering (1846-1919) from 1911 to 1915 under the sponsorship of a memorial fund created by Henry's wife, Anna Mary Palmer. (More discussion on star names and catalogue numbers is available from Alan MacRobert at Sky and Telescope and from Professor James B. Kaler's Star Names.)

          TW Piscis Austrini is a orange-red main sequence dwarf star of spectral and luminosity type K4-5 Vpe. This star may have around 81 percent of Sol's mass, 76 to 85 percent of its diameter (Pasinetti-Fracassini et al, 2001), and 12 to 13 percent of its visual luminosity. It may be only about 200 million years old (D. Barrado y Navascues, 1998).

          The Yale Bright Star Catalogue's notes entry for HR 8721 indicate that TW PsA is a BY Draconi-type variable (Vogt et al, 1983) that varies in apparent visual magnitude from 6.44 to 6.49 over 10 days and shares common proper motion with Fomalhaut (HR 8728). As a flare star, TW Piscis Austrini is its variable star designation. Other useful star catalogue designations for the star include: TW PsA, HR 8721*, Gl 879, Hip 113283, HD 216803, CD-32 17321, CP(D)-32 6550, SAO 214197, and LTT 9283.

          Hunt for Substellar Companions

          Since TW Piscis Austrini is sort of like a distant cousin to Sol, some speculate whether it might just be bright enough to support Earth-type life on a planet lucky enough to orbit in its water zone. The distance from TW PsA where an Earth-type planet would be "comfortable" with liquid water is centered around only 0.36 AU -- within Mercury's orbital distance in the Solar System. At that distance from the star, such a planet would have an orbital period of about 88 days -- about a fourth of an Earth year. Astronomers would find it very difficult to detect using present methods.

          Many dim, red (M) and some orange-red (K) dwarf stars exhibit unusually violent flare activity for their size and brightness. These flare stars are actually common because red dwarfs make up more than half of all stars in our galaxy. Although flares do occur on the Sun every so often, the amount of energy released in a Solar flare is small compared to the total amount of energy that Sol produces. However, a flare the size of a solar flare occurring on a orange-red dwarf star (such as TW Piscis Austrini) that normally has less than 14 percent of than Sol's luminosity would be more noticeable.

          TW PsA is a flare star, like UV Ceti (Luyten
          726-8 B) shown flaring at left. UV Ceti is an extreme
          example of a flare star that can boost its brightness by
          five times in less than a minute, then fall somewhat slower
          back down to normal luminosity within two or three
          minutes before flaring suddenly again after several hours.

          Flare stars erupt sporadically, with successive flares spaced anywhere from an hour to a few days apart. A flare only takes a few minutes to reach peak brightness, and more than one flare can occur at a time. Moreover, in addition to bursts of light and radio waves, flares on dim red dwarfs may emit up to 10,000 times as many X-rays as a comparably-sized Solar flare on our own Sun, and so flares would be lethal to Earth-type life on planets near the flare star. Hence, Earth-type life around flare stars may be less likely because their planets must be located very close to dim orange-red dwarfs to be warmed sufficiently by star light to have liquid water (about 0.36 AU for TW Piscis Austrini), which makes flares even more dangerous around such stars. In any case, the light emitted by late orange-red dwarfs may be too red in color for Earth-type plant life to perform photosynthesis efficiently.

          The following star systems are located within 10 light-years of TW Piscis Austrini.

          Up-to-date technical summaries on these stars can be found at: the Astronomiches Rechen-Institut at Heidelberg's ARICNS, and the Nearby Stars Database. Additional information may be available at Roger Wilcox's Internet Stellar Database.

          Also known as Piscis Australis, Piscis Austrinus is supposed to represent a fish lying on its back, drinking in the waters pouring from the jars of Aquarius. Known since ancient times, the constellation may have been the original Constellation Pisces, referring to the Assyrian Fish God Dagon and the Babylonian God Oannes. In Arabic, it is the Constellation Al Hut al Janubiyy, the Large Southern Fish. For more information about the stars and objects in this constellation, go to Christine Kronberg's Pisces Austrinus. For an illustration, see David Haworth's Pisces Australis (or Austrinus).

          For more information about stars including spectral and luminosity class codes, go to ChView's webpage on The Stars of the Milky Way.


          Within five parsecs

          α Centauri

          It's a triple system. A is much like the sun but slightly larger and brighter B is smaller. A and B have an orbital period of 80 years, and vary between 11 and 36 AU. That's a little close for comfort. The habitable zone is calculated at

          1.25 AU for A, 0.7 AU for B not much farther out, orbits may be unstable. No planets have yet been detected.

          From a planet orbiting A, B would move through the sky in the course of its own year, with an increment due to the 80-year AB revolution. B would appear from -18 to -21 absolute magnitude, much dimmer than we see our sun (-26.7) but much brighter than the moon (-12.5).

          A red dwarf, Proxima Centauri, orbits the pair .21 ly (15000 AU) away with a period of over 100,000 years as it's presently closer to us it's the closest star, though really if you're planning a trip to Proxima you'd might as well take the time to visit the primary. It's so dim that it'd only be fifth magnitude from the vicinity of A.

          From α Centauri, the sun would have an apparent magnitude of 0.5, about like Betelguese or Procyon from Earth. If you want to make this calculation for any star, use the formula

          4.8 + 5 * ((log10 (d/3.26))-1)

          where d is the distance in ly. To calculate for other stars, replace the sun's absolute magnitude 4.8 with the star's.

          From α Centauri, our sun would appear near the W of Cassiopeia, indicated with a + on the mini-map. To find the sun's location from other stars, check the map: reverse the declination (e.g. α Centauri's -61° becomes +61°) and add 12 hours to the right ascension (e.g. α Centauri's 14h39m becomes 2h39m).

          Sirius

          Sirius has a tiny white dwarf companion— half the mass of the primary, but the size of the Earth. White dwarfs are more or less dead stars, the carbon-oxygen residue of a red giant, with no more fusion, just a glow provided by heat. (However, B is brighter than A in X-rays.) The two stars take 50 years to orbit each other, ranging from 8 to 31 AU apart, which would probably make planetary orbits unstable (and indeed no planets are known in the system).

          Worse news for colonists: the system is just 200 to 300 million years old, far too little for any planet to develop an ecosphere. (Plus B was a red giant as recently as 120 million years ago.)

          ε Eridani

          Perhaps more interesting, the system seems to have two asteroid belts, one at 3 AU and one at 20 AU.

          Procyon

          It's name is Greek for 'before the dog', as it rises before Sirius. The Mandarin name is nánhésān 'southern river #3'.

          61 Cygni

          The system is known for its high proper motion. It'll be just 9 ly away in AD 20,000 and thereafter will recede again.

          The star is orbited by a pair of brown dwarfs at about 1450 AUs, themselves separated by about 2 AU. The biggest of them is 40 to 60 times the mass of Jupiter.

          It has an unusually large cloud of asteroids and comets— more than ten time the mass of the sun's. This may mean a much higher level of bombardment than in our system.

          It has a fairly awful traditional name, Durre Menthor, from Arabic al-durr' al-manthūr 'the scattered pearls of the broken necklace'. Its Mandarin name is Tiāncāng wǔ 'Sky granary #5'.