On the ground of Mars there is no evidence of life. This has been confirmed by the reports sent by the modules that have traveled the surface of the red planet. The first to do so were the Viking Lander modules, which performed the first analysis of the Martian soil. What they did discover is that there were organic molecules, but they were much scarcer than those on Earth's Moon.
The Viking missions confirmed the existence of water both in the soils and in the atmosphere of Mars, which was in both solid and gaseous state. In the landing zone, the rocks were covered with a bright red dust. Subsequently, the Mars Pioneer Explorer landed in the Ares Valley, where the rocks were scarce and dark gray.
Currently, the Mars Science Laboratory, popularly known as Curiosity, is the vehicle that analyzes the soil of Mars. The image was taken by Curiosity himself on October 2, 2012, just two months after landing in the Gale crater. Its mission is to determine if life ever existed on Mars, study its climate and geology and prepare for the human exploration of the planet.
In December 2014, NASA, through the data sent by the Curiosity, confirmed for the first time that in the Martian soil there are organic compounds. After drilling the planet's soil, the Curiosity found chlorobenzene and other molecules with carbon and chlorine. It was found that the substances were free from land contamination, that is, that they had not been produced by the rover itself, the scout vehicle. They turned out to be Martians.
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