Each of the four parts into which a Solar year is divided is known as a ground station: spring, summer, autumn and winter. Solar year is understood as the time it takes for the Earth to revolve around the Sun, a path called translational movement.
The axis on which the Earth rotates is inclined. That is why the North Pole approaches the Sun in the summer, while the South Pole moves away from the Solar star. Thus, when it is summer in the northern hemisphere, it is winter in the southern hemisphere, and vice versa.
The seasons of the year last approximately three months, with prevailing climatic conditions that are maintained. In the regions of the Earth near Ecuador the seasons are only two, the dry and the rainy season, since from one to another the rainfall regime varies substantially, but not the temperatures.
Depending on the distance to the Sun, the equinoxes and the Solstices take place. In an equinox the two poles of the Earth are at the same distance from the Sun, so the days have the same duration as the nights. This phenomenon occurs twice a year, between March 20 and 21 or spring equinox, and between September 22 and 23, the autumn equinox.
The Solstice is the time of the year when the Earth's equator is farthest from the Sun. The summer Solstice occurs between June 21 and 22, and on this date the longest day and night take place Short of the whole year. The opposite occurs in the winter Solstice, between December 21 and 22, which has the shortest day and the longest night of the year. In the southern hemisphere it happens the other way around.
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