Geographical poles are known to the two points of the earth's surface that coincide with its axis of rotation: the North Pole and the South Pole. The geographical North of the Earth is at a geographical latitude of 90 degrees north of the equator. For its part, the geographical South Pole is 90 degrees south of the equator. In the geographical poles all meridians coincide, so they have no geographical length.
The Earth's North Pole is located above the Arctic Ocean, and is covered by an ice cap. Astronomically it is the point on the surface of the Earth where the polar star is projected. Also called Arctic, the North Pole was first reached by Umberto Nobile, Roald Amundsen, Lincoln Ellsworth and 13 other people. It was May 11, 1926, and they were traveling in the Norge airship.
The temperatures of the North Pole are "somewhat warmer" than those of the South Pole. In winter temperatures range between -43 degrees Celsius and -26 degrees. The average temperature in summer is 0 degrees. In this pole there are impressive atmospheric and magnetic phenomena, such as the northern lights.
The geographical South Pole was discovered by the Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen, who arrived with a small group on December 14, 1911. It is located on Antarctica, a large icy and windy plateau, located 2,835 meters above sea level. The ice sheet thickness of the South Pole is around 2,700 meters. The South Pole marker is repositioned annually, because the polar mass is on a glacier that moves at a rate of 10 meters per year.
It is important to differentiate between geographical poles and magnetic poles. The first are the points where the axis of rotation of the Earth passes, while the magnetic poles are the points that indicate the ends of a compass. Although they do not match in position, they are usually close to each other. The magnetic poles are not always in the same place, since every year they suffer small displacements. This is because the Earth's core is not solid.
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