Astronomy

Light profile fitting related questions

Light profile fitting related questions

I am computer scientist and now I'm working with some astrophysical projects. During this work I accumulated some questions and maybe here I would be able to find some answers or advice where to look for them. I already read some of the wiki pages on topic, but it didn't help.

We are working with fitting light profiles of some eliptic galaxies with GALPHAT using Sersic and Sersic Exponential models. 1. So first question would be, what exactly means to fit a light profile? I get a bunch of parameters as output (X, Y, Mag, re, n, q and others), but what exactly does it mean? 2. And the second question is what is the difference between these two models?


Light profile fitting related questions - Astronomy

MPFIT - Robust non-linear least squares curve fitting

These IDL routines provide a robust and relatively fast way to perform least-squares curve and surface fitting. The algorithms are translated from MINPACK-1, which is a rugged minimization routine found on Netlib, and distributed with permission. This algorithm is more desirable than CURVEFIT because it is generally more stable and less likely to crash than the brute-force approach taken by CURVEFIT, which is based upon Numerical Recipes .

MPFIT has additional capabilities not found in CURVEFIT. Model parameters can be "frozen" (that is, held constant during the fitting process). Simple boundary constraints can be imposed on parameter values, which can be helpful to keep parameters from becoming negative, for example. Please see the documentation for the PARINFO keyword if you wish to use this facility.

You can cite MPFIT in your papers! See the FAQ entry on citations for more information.

A C version of the library is available! See the special page on the C Version of MPFIT.

Craig's presentation at the IDL Visualize 2009 workshop in Washington DC in April 2009 explains how equation solving and parameter constraints work. This zip file (Markwardt-MPFIT-Visualize2009.zip) contains the presentation as well as example codes relevant to the talk (the PDF and Powerpoint presentations are also available separately).

There are several files included in the MPFIT package. Not all of them are required, but you will probably wish to download more than one. This chart can help you decide between the choices. I recommend the combination of MPFIT.PRO and MPFITFUN.PRO as being suitable for most 1-dimensional problems.

Jan 03 2017141 kb mpfit.pro REQUIRED
Oct 02 201236 kb mpfitfun.pro Recommended (1D)
May 19 201628 kb mpfit2dfun.pro Recommended (2D)
May 19 201631 kb mpfitexpr.pro

MPCURVEFIT.PRO is a drop-in replacement for IDL's CURVEFIT.PRO, but with the additional features of the MPFIT family of functions.

You can download the entire MPFIT package as a gzip'ed tar file or zip file.

Jan 03 2017154 kb mpfit.tar.gz
Jan 03 2017194 kb mpfit.zip
Jun 22 20104 kb MPREADME General Documentation
Dec 06 20031 kb INSTALL Installation Instructions
Feb 18 200926 kb cmpfit-1.1.tar.gz
Feb 18 200929 kb cmpfit-1.1.zip
Nov 13 201029 kb cmpfit-1.2.tar.gz
Nov 13 201033 kb cmpfit-1.2.zip
Jun 02 201629 kb cmpfit-1.3a.tar.gz
Jun 02 201633 kb cmpfit-1.3a.zip

Specialized Applications - Additional functions which aid in specialized fitting applications

This section contains functions for specialized applications related to fitting with the MPFIT family of functions. Generally you will use thse functions in conjunction with the core routines above to achive your result.

NEW! (2016-05-19) The function MPFITCOVAR is used fit small to modest-sized problems where the measurement variance-covariance matrix is non-diagonal. This occurs when measurement sample errors are correlated with each other.

The function MPPROPERR can be used to estimate the uncertainty of your model function, via standard propagation of error formulae. For example, if you have a best fit model with parameter uncertainties, then MPPROPERR can be used to see where these parameter uncertainties cause the most uncertainty in the model function that is compared to your data. See the function for more documentation and examples.

Dec 21 20119 kb mpproperr.pro
Jan 03 201727 kb mpfitcovar.pro

Statistical Tests - Hypothesis Testing and Confidence Interval Estimation for Chi-square, F, and Normal Distributions

The following functions perform statistical tests and estimate confidence limits. MPCHITEST, MPFTEST and MPNORMTEST are useful for hypothesis testing for variables distributed as the chi-square, F, and normal distributions. The F distribution is used in testing ratios of variances and for addition of parameters in chi square fitting. MPCHILIM and MPNORMLIM estimate confidence limits for chi-square and normal distributions.

These functions are based on the CEPHES library of special functions by Stephen Moshier, available from Netlib, and do not depend on any special function implementations from IDL.

Jun 22 20108 kb mpchitest.pro Chi-square
Jun 22 201015 kb mpchilim.pro Chi-square
Jun 22 201014 kb mpftest.pro F distribution
Jun 22 20108 kb mpnormtest.pro Normal
Nov 24 20068 kb mpnormlim.pro Normal

Likelihoods - Alternate likelihood functions

When fitting a linear model to data with errors in both X and Y, the standard least-squares likelihood function is not appropriate, since it considers only errors in Y. LINFITEX is an alternate likelihood function for fitting a linear model to data with errors in both X and Y, based on Numerical Recipes by Press et al. You use it as your model function with MPFIT (not MPFITFUN), and specify the data values using the FUNCTARGS keyword. Please see the documentation within the module for more information and examples of how to use it.

Peak Fitting - Specialized Fitting for Peak and Ellipse Applications

These are a few specialized fitting applications which use the MPFIT library of routines. The functions MPFITPEAK and MPFIT2DPEAK replace the built-in IDL functions GAUSSFIT and GAUSS2DFIT.

The function MPFITELLIPSE is used to fit an elliptical shape to a set of X-Y scatter points. Users should still consult the ODRPack Page which is more general and robust for these types of problems, however MPFITELLIPSE is good for quick and dirty problems where the measurement error is small compared to the ellipse axes.

These functions are distinguished in several ways. First, they use the MPFIT library, and so the fitting should be more robust. That also means you can use the PARINFO keyword to hold parameters constant, etc. Second, I use a different technique to estimate the starting parameter values, which I think will be more robust under more circumstances.

Finally, for the peak fitters, you are not limited to a Gaussian function the Lorentzian and Moffat peaks are available as well. [ The Moffat function is a modified Lorentzian with variable power law index. (Moffat, A. F. J. 1969, Astronomy & Astrophysics, v. 3, p. 455-461). ] However, you may notice that the fitting process is slower. That is simply the nature of MPFIT -- it is definitely more compute intensive.

Dec 21 201122 kb mpfitpeak.pro 1D Gaussian
May 19 201618 kb mpfit2dpeak.pro 2D Gaussian
Jan 03 2017141 kb mpfit.pro REQUIRED
Oct 02 201236 kb mpfitfun.pro REQUIRED
May 19 201628 kb mpfit2dfun.pro REQUIRED
Jun 22 201012 kb mpfitellipse.pro

TNMIN - Non-linear optimization

TNMIN is a general non-linear function minimizer based on a truncated-Newton method by Stephen Nash. TNMIN will minimize any function that can be expressed in IDL. TNMIN can use explicitly-calculated partial derivatives, or estimate them numerically.

TNMIN has all of the enhancements that MPFIT has, including the ability to fix parameters, to place simple bounds on parameters, and to tie one parameter value to other parameter values. Both MPFIT and TNMIN share same PARINFO keyword mechanism to enable this feature.

MPFIT is still recommended for curve fitting applications, but TNMIN will be useful when general minimization is desired.


Asking questions shows people that you are interested and would like to know more about them. Such an exchange can further your working relationship among both coworkers and individuals you manage. The more interest you show in others, the more they will respect and like you.

Additionally, if you are a manager, getting to know your team members can help build trust and promote open communication between you and those you manage. While it may seem simple, showing your team members you are interested in them can have many benefits for your team’s overall production and job satisfaction. 

Additional benefits of get-to-know-you questions in the workplace include:

  • Learning why someone is in the work position they are in
  • Discovering your team’s weaknesses and strengths
  • Increasing your employees’ overall happiness at work
  • Helping new employees feel more comfortable and part of the team
  • Building positive relationships with your coworkers or employees
  • Allowing your staff to get to know you better
  • Acting as an icebreaker for employees and managers

Physicist or Astronomer

Physicists and astronomers study the ways in which various forms of matter and energy interact. Theoretical physicists and astronomers may study the nature of time or the origin of the universe. Some physicists design and perform experiments with sophisticated equipment such as particle accelerators, electron microscopes, and lasers.

Duties

Physicists and astronomers typically do the following:

  • Develop scientific theories and models that attempt to explain the properties of the natural world, such as the force of gravity or the formation of sub-atomic particles
  • Plan and conduct scientific experiments and studies to test theories and discover properties of matter and energy
  • Write proposals and apply for funding to conduct research
  • Do complex mathematical calculations to analyze physical and astronomical data, such as data that may indicate the existence of planets in distant solar systems or new properties of materials
  • Design new scientific equipment, such as telescopes and lasers
  • Develop computer software to analyze and model data
  • Write scientific papers that may be published in scholarly journals
  • Present research findings at scientific conferences and lectures

Physicists explore the fundamental properties and laws that govern space, time, energy, and matter. Some physicists study theoretical areas, such as the fundamental properties of atoms and molecules and the evolution of the universe. Others design and perform experiments with sophisticated equipment such as particle accelerators, electron microscopes, and lasers. Many apply their knowledge of physics to practical objectives, such as developing advanced materials and medical equipment.

Astronomers study planets, stars, galaxies, and other celestial bodies. They use ground-based equipment, such as radio and optical telescopes, and space-based equipment, such as the Hubble Space Telescope. Some astronomers study distant stars, galaxies, and phenomena such as neutron stars and black holes, and others monitor space debris that could interfere with satellite operations.

Many physicists and astronomers work in basic research with the aim of increasing scientific knowledge. These researchers may attempt to develop theories that better explain what gravity is or how the universe works or was formed. Other physicists and astronomers work in applied research. They use the knowledge gained from basic research to effect new developments in areas such as energy storage, electronics, communications, navigation, and medical technology.

Astronomers and physicists typically work on research teams together with engineers, technicians, and other scientists. Some senior astronomers and physicists may be responsible for assigning tasks to other team members and monitoring their progress. They may also be responsible for finding funding for their projects and therefore may need to write applications for research funding.

Experimental physicists develop new equipment or sensors to study properties of matter, create theories, and test them through experiments. Theoretical and computational physicists develop new theories that can predict properties of materials, or describe unexplained experimental results. Although all of physics involves the same fundamental principles, physicists generally specialize in one of many subfields. The following are examples of types of physicists:

Astrophysicists study the physics of the universe. “Astrophysics” is a term that is often used interchangeably with “astronomy.”

Atomic, molecular, and optical physicists study atoms, simple molecules, electrons, and light, as well as the interactions among them. Some look for ways to control the states of individual atoms, because such control might allow for further miniaturization or might contribute toward the development of new materials or computer technology.

Condensed matter and materials physicists study the physical properties of matter in molecules, nanostructures, or novel compounds. They study a wide range of phenomena, such as superconductivity, liquid crystals, sensors, and nanomachines.

Medical physicists work in healthcare and use their knowledge of physics to develop new medical technologies and radiation-based treatments. For example, some develop better and safer radiation therapies for cancer patients. Others may develop more accurate imaging technologies that use various forms of radiant energy, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound imaging.

Particle and nuclear physicists study the properties of atomic and subatomic particles, such as quarks, electrons, and nuclei, and the forces that cause their interactions.

Plasma physicists study plasmas, which are considered a distinct state of matter and occur naturally in stars and interplanetary space and artificially in neon signs and plasma screen televisions. Many plasma physicists study ways to create fusion reactors that might be a future source of energy.

Unlike physicists, astronomers cannot experiment on their subjects, because they are so far away that they cannot be touched or interacted with. Therefore, astronomers generally make observations or work on theory. Observational astronomers observe celestial objects and collect data on them. Theoretical astronomers analyze, model, and theorize about systems and how they work and evolve. The following are examples of types of astronomers who specialize by the objects and phenomena they study:

Cosmologists and extragalactic astronomers study the entire universe. They study the creation, evolution, and possible futures of the universe and its galaxies. These scientists have recently developed several theories important to the study of physics and astronomy, including string, dark-matter, and dark-energy theories.

Galactic, planetary, solar, and stellar astronomers study phenomena that take place in the universe at the scale of stars, planets, and solar systems. For example, these astronomers study the sun, stellar evolution, planetary formation, and interactions between stars

Optical and radio astronomers use optical or radio telescopes to study motions and evolution of stars, galaxies, and the larger scale structure of the universe.

Growing numbers of physicists work in interdisciplinary fields, such as biophysics, chemical physics, and geophysics. For more information, see the profiles on biochemists and biophysicists and geoscientists.

Many people with a physics or astronomy background become professors or teachers. For more information, see the profiles on high school teachers and postsecondary teachers.

Is This the Right Career for You?

Not sure how to choose the best career for you? Now, you can predict which career will satisfy you in the long term by taking a scientifically validated career test. Gain the clarity and confidence that comes from understanding your strengths, talents, and preferences, and knowing which path is truly right for you.


A good survey question is one that helps you get clear insights and business-critical information about your customers, including:

  • Who your target market is
  • How you should price your products
  • What is stopping people from buying from you
  • Why visitors leave your website

With this information, you can tailor your website, products, landing pages, and/or messaging to improve the user experience and (ultimately) maximize conversions.

AN EXAMPLE OF SURVEY QUESTION THAT, IF ASKED ON A WEBSITE PAGE, WILL GIVE ACTIONABLE ADVICE AND HELP YOU IMPROVE IT

Why is it important to ask good survey questions?

A good survey question is asked in a precise way at the right stage in the buyer’s journey to give you solid data about your customers’ needs and drives.

The format you choose for your survey—in-person, email, on-page, etc.—is important, but if the questions themselves are poorly worded you could waste hours trying to fix minimal problems while ignoring major ones a different question could have uncovered. We'll explore the dos and don'ts of good question writing towards the end of this article.

How to run your surveys

The format you pick for your survey depends on what you want to achieve, and also on how much budget/resources you have. You can:

  • Use a feedback tool and set up a website survey that pops up whenever people visit a specific page → useful when you want to investigate website- and product-specific topics quickly, relatively inexpensive

A website survey built with Hotjar and placed on Colgate's ecom website
  • Use a survey builder and create a survey that people can access in their own time → useful when you want to reach out to your mailing list and/or a wider audience (you just need to share the URL the survey lives at), has more space for people to elaborate on their answers, relatively inexpensive

A survey built with Hotjar, about Hotjar, that we recently sent out to our website visitors
  • Place survey kiosks in a physical location where people can give their feedback by pressing a button → useful for quick feedback on specific aspects of a customer's experience (there’s usually plenty of these in airports and waiting rooms), relatively expensive to maintain
  • Run in-person surveys with your existing or prospective customers → in-person questionnaires help you dig deep into your interviewees’ answers, relatively cheap if you do it over the phone but more expensive time-wise if done in a physical location you need to travel to/from, and costly if done in a lab

To run both on-site surveys (that appear on a website page) and online surveys (that exist on a separate URL), you will need dedicated survey-building software like Hotjar. Here is what the dashboard looks like: after choosing the type of survey to run, you will be able to build and include as many questions as you want in the exact order you need them.

Hotjar's survey dashboard

How Telescopes Work

­­­A telescope is an amazing device that has the ability­ to make faraway objects appear much closer. Telescopes­ come in all shapes and sizes, from a little plastic tube you buy at a toy store for $2, to the Hubble Space Telescope, which weighs several tons. Amateur telescopes fit somewhere in between, and even though they are not nearly as powerful as the Hubble, they can do some incredible things. For example, a small 6-inch (15-centimeter) scope lets you read the writing on a dime from 150 feet (46 meters) away!

Most of the telescopes you see today come in one of two flavors:

  1. The refractor telescope, which uses glass lenses.
  2. The reflector telescope, which uses mirrors instead of the lenses.

Both types accomplish exactly the same thing, but in completely different ways.

­To understand how telescopes work, let's ask the following question. Why can't you see an object that is far away? For example, why can't you read the writing on a dime when it is 150 feet away with your naked eyes? The answer to this question is simple: the object does not take up much space on your eye's screen (retina). If you want to think about it in digital camera terms, at 150 feet the writing on the dime does not cover enough pixels on your retinal sensor for you to read the writing.

If you had a "bigger eye," you could collect more light from the object and create a brighter image, and then you could magnify part of that image so it stretches out over more pixels on your retina. Two pieces in a telescope make this possible:

  1. The objective lens (in refractors) or primary mirror (in reflectors) collects lots of light from a distant object and brings that light, or image, to a point or focus.
  2. An eyepiece lens takes the bright light from the focus of the objective lens or primary mirror and "spreads it out" (magnifies it) to take up a large portion of the retina. This is the same principle that a magnifying glass (lens) uses it takes a small image on the paper and spreads it out over the retina of your eye so that it looks big.

When you combine the objective lens or primary mirror with the eyepiece, you have a telescope. Again, the basic idea is to collect lots of light to form a bright image inside th­e telescope, and then use something like a magnifying glass to magnify (enlarge) that bright image so that it takes up a lot of space on your retina.

­A telescope has two general properties:

­A telescope's ability to collect light is directly related to the diameter of the lens or mirror -- the aperture -- that is used to gather light. Generally, the larger the aperture, the more light the telescope collects and brings to focus, and the brighter the final image.

The telescope's magnification, its ability to enlarge an image, depends on the combination of lenses used. The eyepiece performs the magnification. Since any magnification can be achieved by almost any telescope by using different eyepieces, aperture is a more important feature than magnification.

To understand how this actually works in a telescope, let's take a look at how a refractor telescope (the kind with lenses) magnifies an image of a distant object to make it appear closer.


Felix Gray offers a wide range of styles and colors for its blue light glasses. Each pair utilizes a fully-infused technology that allows them to filter 15 times more of the blue light that can cause blurry vision and tired eyes when staring into screens all day. You can purchase the glasses as-is, or add a prescription to the lenses. If you opt for a non-prescription pair, you can request magnification in your lenses instead—a good option for anyone fixated on spreadsheets all day.

Becky IV Blue Light Glasses


COMMUNICATIONS AND OUTREACH

Making astronomy exciting, engaging, understandable, and relevant to a diverse audience.

Sharing Hubble&rsquos spectacular images and discoveries for more than 25 years by connecting with diverse audiences has made the communications and outreach team at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) a world leader in astronomy communication and public outreach. Our work focuses on the scientific discoveries of NASA&rsquos Hubble Space Telescope the James Webb Space Telescope, planned to launch in 2021 and the Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope, which will launch in the mid-2020s.

Our experienced team of astronomers and planetary scientists, education specialists, science writers, media specialists, visualization and imaging specialists, designers, and web developers creates tailored products and services that are designed to communicate these missions&rsquo scientific discoveries to a range of audiences. We engage the public in mission discoveries at events, create educational programming, develop interactive websites, post to a variety of social media channels, and provide press packages for journalists who publish articles that reach wide audiences.

Our team has access to STScI&rsquos vast network of scientists and engineers, which allows us to infuse current research into every product we create and every event we produce to engage audiences in the adventures of science. Discoveries from our science missions expand the imagination of young and old alike, and provide a natural springboard for the exploration of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). We aim to serve NASA&rsquos mission to bring the universe within grasp and inspire the next generations of explorers.


Light profile fitting related questions - Astronomy

Explore the universe with astronomy for kids and enjoy our free games, fun facts, cool quizzes, amazing videos, science fair projects and more!

Learn about planets, stars, moons, galaxies, asteroids, comets, telescopes and all kinds of astronomical objects. As well as activities for children, there are also lesson plans and worksheets for teachers, science ideas for parents and a whole host of online teaching resources for anyone interested in stars, planets, and the subject of astronomy.

Challenge your knowledge of space and astronomy by trying one of our fun astronomy quizzes. How much do you know about galaxies, planets, the Sun, the Moon and the Solar System?

Can you name the planet famous for its big red spot? Enjoy the challenging questions and fun trivia of our space and astronomy quiz.

Interested in astronomy? Try unscrambling all twenty of our space and astronomy related words.

Have fun learning about space with this interactive astronomy game. Discover how the Earth and Moon orbit the Sun, how long it takes the Earth to spin on its axis and more.

Do you know how long it takes for the Earth to orbit the Sun? How about how long it takes the Moon to orbit the Earth? Find out the answer to these and more Earth, Sun and Moon questions with this fun astronomy game.

Check out these fun astronomy facts for kids and learn more about asteroids, meteoroids, moons, the Solar System and the closest stars to Earth.

Learn about the Solar System&rsquos asteroid belt, potential asteroid collisions with Earth and more.

Find out how fast meteoroids travel, how often they make it through Earth&rsquos atmosphere and more with our range of meteoroid facts.

What are the closest stars to Earth? Find out with our top ten list that features binary stars such as Sirius and Alpha Centauri.

Learn about the Sun, terrestrial planets, gas giants, moons, asteroid belt and Earth with our list of interesting solar system facts for kids.

Learn about a range of the Solar System's unique moons such as Titan, Charon, Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto, Triton, Phobos and Deimos.

Take a look at these great astronomy videos. See how the Solar System was born, watch an amazing black hole animation, learn about the Hubble Space Telescope and more.

Learn how the Solar System was born billions of years ago.

Check out this cool animation of a black hole destroying a star.

Learn about the Hubble Space Telescope with this educational video.

This short documentary focuses on NASA's planet finding Kepler mission.

Get some great ideas for a range of fun astronomy science fair projects. Take a look at out suggested topics, find one that interests you and give it a try!

Check out all our space and astronomy related science fair project ideas for kids. Choose from a number of questions and topics including:

  • Why do planets orbit the sun in an elliptical shape?
  • Make a model mars rover that can navigate rocky terrain.
  • Discuss the possibility of life on another planet.
  • Study the phases of the moon.

Check out our cool range of free astronomy pictures, photos and diagrams.

Find interesting images of supernovas, nebulas, galaxies, stars, planets, moon phases, Hubble images and more.

Enjoy a range of astronomy lesson plans, teaching resources, classroom ideas and fun worksheets. Find activities and information on topics such living on the Moon, making a spaceship and more.

Make a comet and follow its path through the Solar System with this fun astronomy lesson plan for kids.

Have you ever thought what life would be like if you were living on the Moon or another planet? Design and build a futuristic city with this in mind.

Create a spaceship, space station or satellite using recycled objects such as cardboard, newspaper and bottles.

How quickly can you find words related to space and astronomy? Find out with this printable space word search for kids.

Enjoy our cool planet facts. Learn about terrestrial planets such as Venus and Mars, gas giants like Jupiter and Saturn as well as dwarf planets like Pluto. Find out how far from the Sun they are, what their atmosphere is like and what makes them unique.

Learn more about the planet Saturn and its amazing rings.

Did you know that Uranus rolls like a barrel rather than spinning like Earth?

Learn about the extreme weather conditions on Neptune with our fun facts for kids.

Enjoy a range of interesting facts about Pluto, Eris and other dwarf planets.

Check out our fun facts and information about famous astronomers and scientists who have contributed important theories, ideas and research to the field of astronomy.

Galileo built telescopes and used them to observe the night sky. He discovered Jupiter's four largest moons and changed the way people thought about the Solar System.

Among other things, Isaac Newton was a brilliant astronomer whose law of gravitation marked an important stepping stone in our understanding of the Universe.

Enjoy our interesting facts about Edwin Hubble, an American astronomer famous his work on astrophysics and his subsequent namesake, the Hubble Space Telescope.


Teamwork interview questions with sample answers

In your interview, consider using the STAR interview response technique to answer teamwork questions. STAR stands for situation (context of the story), task (your role in the story), action (how you managed the situation) and result (the outcome you reached). Including these four parts in your answers helps you to give clear responses with relevant examples that prove your experience.

Consider these examples of questions and answers to help you prepare for your interview:

1. How do you feel about working in a team environment?

Employers ask this question to understand your preference for a team environment. Your answer may show if their work culture will be a good fit for you. Some employees prefer to work alone or experience challenges when working with teams. You should be honest when answering this question. Respond by explaining how you feel about teams and use an example. 

Example: “I was working on an event planning team for a non-profit organization. I enjoy working on teams, and I find that I am more successful at work when I have a team supporting me. However, I also like to build a little alone time into my workday, too. We met as a group in the morning but always took a short break around 2 p.m. to refocus before coming together to end the day. The schedule worked well, and we were able to򠫌omplish both our collective and individual goals.”

2. Provide an example of a time you showed strong teamwork skills

Employers look for candidates with strong teamwork skills who know how to work productively with others. This question gives you the opportunity to highlight your unique skills and experiences. Think about the position for which you are applying and try to match your answer to that role. Choose an example that shows the most relevant aspects of your team experience. 

Example: “I worked on a textbook sales team during a slow summer season. I scheduled brainstorming meetings where our group could come together to find innovative solutions and new sales tactics. We took the time to listen to everyone’s ideas, and by the end of the summer, we had exceeded our sales goals by 20%.”

3. Share an example of a team project that failed

Employers want to see success from their teams. They look for team members who can learn from their mistakes and produce positive outcomes. With this question, you have the opportunity to਍iscuss examples of resilience and overcoming challenges. Be sure to share an example of a project that taught you something about teamwork. 

Example: “One of my past teams struggled with communication. Many tasks weren’t completed, deadlines passed and the project ultimately failed. I tried different methods of communication throughout the project. Through that experience, I learned how important it is to set communication expectations from the very start of a project. That way, everyone stays in contact and understands what they need to do to make the project a success.”

4. What makes a team function successfully?

Your answer to this question lets the employer know if their team environment might be the right one for you. Your answer can help them measure your idea of teamwork against their own company culture. Choose a recent example and maintain a positive attitude when speaking about your previous employer and teammates. 

Example: “In my internship, I worked on an efficient, successful team that had a strong manager. That person checked in with our team and with individuals on a bi-weekly basis. She trusted us, but also cared about our work. We all felt invested in the project because leadership showed their own investment.”

5. What strategies would you use to motivate your team?

Teamwork is about collaboration, but it also needs leadership. This question gives you the chance to highlight your leadership abilities and show the interviewer whether you might be a leader on the team. Employers may appreciate creative techniques that produce positive results. An ideal candidate will answer with confidence and creativity. 

Example:  “Motivation often comes from smaller recognitions, rather than large gestures. I make time to thank my teammates with phone calls, emails, notes and simple conversations. I let them know how much their hard work means to me and the rest of the team. This technique has made a noticeable difference in productivity and deadline management since I started using it.”

6. Have you ever found it difficult to work with a manager or other team members?

This question measures your ability to work on a team and to accept supervision. Employers might be looking for an optimistic attitude and to understand your past job experience. Be honest and keep a positive tone.

Example: “I have often worked with managers and coworkers, and I rarely find it difficult. Sometimes it takes some time to adjust to a new manager or leader in a team environment. However, as long as we take the time to connect and clarify expectations, I think everything will work out. I expect an adjustment period, just like any other relationship.”