The aurora is the brightness caused in the Earth's ionosphere by the interaction of its magnetic field with charged particles from the solar wind. They are observed near the polar regions, and are known as Aurora Austral (southern hemisphere) or Boreal (northern).
The brightness of the aurora occurs when the solar wind collides with the particles of the upper layers of the Earth's atmosphere, and is sometimes reinforced by high-energy subatomic particles from sunspots. These particles collide with the gas molecules in the atmosphere, exciting them and producing luminescence, that is, visible light emission.
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