With the name of El Niño, a climatic phenomenon is known to occur cyclically. In periods that occur every three to seven years, the surface waters of a large part of the tropical Pacific Ocean are heated or cooled between 1 and 3 degrees Celsius. It seems a ridiculous figure, but this change in temperature wreaks havoc worldwide. The places most affected by El Niño are South America and the area from Indonesia to Australia.
The technical name of the phenomenon is Oscillation of the South El Niño, ENSO for its acronym in English. Although its existence has been known for relatively recently, it has been happening for seven millennia.
The El Niño training process lasts about six months. It begins with a weakening of the trade winds, which even stop blowing. This causes the maximum marine temperature to move towards the Peruvian Current, usually cold. On the contrary, the minimum marine temperature moves towards Southeast Asia. These changes in water temperature cause an increase in atmospheric pressure in Southeast Asia, decreasing in South America.
The catastrophic results of this inversion of temperatures and pressure vary by area. In Southeast Asia, rains begin to be scarce, causing long periods of devastating droughts. On the contrary, intense rains occur in South America, which can cause floods such as those that took place in Peru in 2010, and which we can see in the image.
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