Astronomy

Can someone explain me this diagram from an article?

Can someone explain me this diagram from an article?


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How should I understand this 59 degree mentioned below, what does it mean? I could not get it. The photo is a diagram from an article dedicated to the invention of the ecliptic. The photo is from my tablet (the title could be seen)


The Earth's equator is at an approximate 23.4 degree angle to the plain of its orbit around the Sun. That means that to an Earth-bound observer the Sun appears to move north and south of the celestial equator (which is merely the projection of the Earth's equator on to the sky) during the course of the year.

In fact this is what gives us the seasons - so in the the Sun is at maximum northern declination (the equivalent of latitude when projected on to the sky) at the time of the Summer Solstice (around 21 June - hence summer in the northern hemisphere) and at maximum southern declination at the time of the winter solstice (around 21 December - hence northern winter).

But this movement also means different rising and setting points - in the Northern hemisphere the Sun's rise is between north and ast in the summer and between south and east in the winter (unless, that is, you are within the Artic circle in which case it will not set/rise at all for at least some period in the summer and winter).

There are a variety of online tools that show you this effect - this one: https://www.timeanddate.com/sun/iraq/baghdad?month=12&year=2017 - shows that in Baghdad the sun rises - in 2017 - at 61 degrees East on 21 June and at 118 degrees East on 21 December - a difference of 58 degrees.


This is almost too short to be answer. Using the "rise" formula at Need Simple equation for Rise, Transit, and Set time and plugging in 32.54 degrees for Babylon's latitude, we get:

  • When an object's declination is +23.5 degrees (the Sun at summer solstice), it rises 61.77 degrees east of north.

  • When an object's declination is -23.5 degrees (the Sun at winter solstice), it rises 118.23 degrees east of north, which is more conveniently expressed as 61.77 degrees east of south (note the expected symmetry here)

  • The azimuth degree difference between these positions is 56.46 degrees, close to the 59 degrees in the diagram.

  • The calculations for the Sun setting are very similar.

Why the difference?

  • If the Sun were a point and there were no refraction, the numbers above would be more accurate. Because the Sun is a disk and because of refraction, the sun actually rises when the geometric position of the center of its disk is 50 minutes below the horizon.

  • Minor: I'm using +-23.5 degrees as an approximation of the Sun's declination at the solstices: the actual number is a little different.

To be fair, even after applying some corrections, I couldn't quite get 59 degrees or even anything about 58.5 degrees, but I'm sure this is what they're talking about.

TODO: I invite someone to create a graph showing how the "59 degrees" varies with latitude.


  • Don’t skip over diagrams and graphs when reading!
  • These visual aids provide summaries or can illustrate a complex process understanding how to read them is a very efficient way to learn material.
  • When tackling diagrams or graphs, pay attention to:
    • Captions: What clues about the illustration can you gain from the general description?
    • Labels: Can you define or describe the items labeled? If not, reread the text.
    • Directionality: Are there arrows, numbers or letters that orient the illustration?

    Review the two examples provided. By answering the questions for each, you’ll see how much information can be gleaned from diagrams and graphs.


    Graph 1 Questions:

    • What information does this diagram provide?
    • How do the arrows help illustrate the process depicted in the diagram?
    • How do the colors of the arrows and the text help organize the facts?


    Graph 2 Questions:

    • What information does this graph provide?
    • Note the labels in the X and Y Axis, as well as the location of the “Profit Target” line.
    • What does this graph tell you about the performance of the three products over the course of a year?

    Can someone explain in plain english for me

    I have read and read and read about apeture and lenses and all that stuff now I am obviously not the brightest bulb in the world when it comes to that stuff.

    I have read reviews and still don't seem to be getting the information to sink in.

    What I would like to know is (and maybe this isn't a question that can be answered the way I want it to) but I am hoping someone can tell me the differences between the various types of scopes in simple terms such as the image quality and what you would be able to see with the various types of telescopes without meantioning apeture and sizes. I know that this stuff is important but want to know more about what I would be actually seeing through the telescope as I am in the market and would like to know the difference.

    #2 paso

    I forgot to mention that I live in the country and don't have to worry about moving it around so portability is not an issue.

    #3 David Pavlich

    Hi Nancy,
    My suggestion would be to buy the book Starware. Terrific book that breaks down the differences between scope types.

    #4 kestrel0222

    Basically, you have (2) types of telescopes.

    The first (reflector) uses mirrors to reflect the image into an eyepiece.
    There are many variations of the reflector scope.

    The second (refractor) uses lenses to bend the image into an eyepiece. This is the same as wearing a pair of glasses.

    That is the simplest explaination that I can think of.

    #5 paso

    Well I have read much on the net and it's all greek to me. I have read reviews and the best thing for me would to actually see the images from the various scopes. Is there a site that shows the various images that the scopes are capable of?

    I want to only buy one and not feel the need to upgrade later which is what I am seeing in many of the reviews.

    I understand that it isn't black and white but I want the best clearest images of as many objects as possible. (Doesn't everyone? LOL) If I can hook up a camera even better!

    #6 oneslowz28

    First I would like to welcome you to cloudy nights. I dont know much about the Different types of scopes but I can tell you that apeture is the deciding factor on what you will see.

    Apeture plays a majior role in what you will be able to see. Filters, different quality eyepeices, and seeing also play roles in what you can see. For instance I can see saturn and its rings in my small 60mm refractor. But I can make out the cassani <sp> division with my 10" dob. Saturn in my 60mm is just a orange circle with a ring around it.

    If your not worried about portability then I would sujest as large as you can go budget wise. I sprung for a 10" dobsonian from orion. I also spent the extra cash on the intelliscope option with the object locator. Total was around $830.00 shipped. Im sure you will get plenty of answers to your question. The people here are very nice and very helpful. They wont steer you wrong.

    #7 paso

    What I think I am looking for is what I will be able to actually see with the different types of scopes.

    #8 yg1968

    This is not an easy question. On this forum, most people will suggest a Dobsonian scope because they are fairly large scopes at an afforable price. A dobsonian uses mirrors. Some Orion Dobs (the Skyquest series) comes with an object locator (often called "push-to").

    Newton scopes are identical to DOBs but are usually on an equatorial mount.

    Refractor scopes use lenses and are great for imaging if you have an equatorial mount that has "goto".

    SCT are a combination of lenses and mirrors which makes them fairly portable. They usually come with "goto". You can get them on an equatorial mount or an alt-az fork mount (alt-az is easier to use but if you intend to image, an equatorial mount is better). They are very versatile scopes.

    What you will see depends on the size of your scopes. Seing galaxies with a scope less than 8 inch is difficult. An 8 inch scope will show you great views of planets, clusters and Nebulas. Galaxies can be seen with an 8 inch scopes. But not that much details can be seen. Planets appear in color but most other objects will appear to be black and white when you look at them. They only show color if you do (longer exposure) imaging.

    The book "Turn left at Orion" gives you an idea of what can be seen in a telescope.



    Please note this is an archived topic, so it is locked and unable to be replied to. You may, however, start a new topic and refer to this topic with a link: http://www.banjohangout.org/archive/369724

    Lemon Banjos - Posted - 10/25/2020: 11:16:51

    I was looking at the Presonus Quantum 4848, more for wishing for awesome equipment than planning to buy, and as I tried to decipher the hookup guide, I realized everything looked to be going in a circle. Can someone please explain this hookup guide to me so that I can clearly see what does what, and why so many cables are needed?

    thisoldman - Posted - 10/25/2020: 12:11:44

    p. 7 of the manual? Checked and Sweetwater carries the Presonus Quantum 4848,, as well as the DigimaxDP88 and I'm sure if you call or "chat" with one of their reps they should be able to answer your question(s). Also, check their "knowledge base", like this article How to Use a Patchbay The PreSonus site also has a knowledge base, forums and, if you buy their products, tech support.

    I'm pretty sure there are members here on the HO that have a lot of electronics knowledge and experience and could answer your question.

    The Quantum 4848 has 32 channels and I imagine one needs the dp88's and all those cables to handle the inputs and outputs.

    250gibson - Posted - 10/26/2020: 08:58:12

    It is essentially a circle. Input one connected to input one on patch bay, output one of patch bay back to output one on device. This will send and return a signal through whatever you patch into the other side of the patch bay.

    Lemon Banjos - Posted - 10/26/2020: 09:14:17

    I think I'm beginning to understand now.

    So it runs a full loop, doing nothing to the signal, until you plug something into the corresponding patchbay slot, which will force the signal to run through it first, then back to the device?

    loonsailor - Posted - 10/26/2020: 20:57:50

    If there's nothing going to an I/O on the patch bay, then nothing is happening on that channel. The idea is that this device is used for a bunch of outboard gear, probably mostly analog. As it says on page 1 of the manual "Route audio from your vintage gear to your DAW and back." So, an I/O on the patch panel is used for a specific piece of outboard gear. Say you've got an analog compressor that you really love. You would use one (two if it's stereo) of the patch points, connect the top (out) patch point to the compressor's input, and the compressor's output back to the corresponding bottom (in) patch point. Now, you can use that compressor from your DAW by using the corresponding channel on the interface.

    If you are gonna use mostly plugins (there are excellent compressors, eq's, delays, and much more available as DAW plugins), and you don't have a bunch of outboard gear that you want to patch in to your mixes, this device is not for you.


    Can someone explain this wiring diagram to me please?

    The only useful wire in this diagram is the Sensor Signal.

    Pin 3 would be the output from the potentiometer. If you put your relay in-line between 3 and 23, you will tell the brake module that the pedal has been pressed.

    As long as that relay is providing the right input expected. This is the part I don't know. I'm not sure what that signal should look like. I would have to test/scope it myself.

    Captain Skip

    Well-Known Member

    These are the installation instructions for the relay.

    Installing the Brake Circuit Disconnect.

    Step 1. Locate the brake light switch. This switch is generally found toward the uppermost part of the brake pedal arm. Refer to owners manual or seek the advice of a technician if you have problems finding this switch.

    Step 2. Locate the wire that sends a signal to your brake lights from this switch. There will be two wires running to this switch. One supplies the switch with a constant 12 volt current, the other sends this current to the tail lights when the brake is activated. The wire which carries the signal to the brake lights upon activation of the brake pedal is the wire you will run to the relay.

    Step 3. Cut the wire located in step 2. Make sure to cut the wire that carries the signal to the brake light located in step 2. Leave enough length to splice it to the wires coming from the relay. The relay can then be wire tied or permanently mounted under the dash to a suitable structure.


    Can someone explain this wiring diagram to me please?

    That's great you know the difference. Your first reply was very vague.

    The purpose is to just disconnect the brake lights. When the brake line is disconnected with the relay, the vehicle won't even be on.

    The wiper voltage won't matter if it's 12vdc or 5vdc.

    You really could put the disconnect anywhere between the pedal and the BCM.

    B137 or B15 . either one will accomplish what you need OP.

    Captain Skip

    Well-Known Member

    That's great you know the difference. Your first reply was very vague.

    The purpose is to just disconnect the brake lights. When the brake line is disconnected with the relay, the vehicle won't even be on.

    The wiper voltage won't matter if it's 12vdc or 5vdc.

    You really could put the disconnect anywhere between the pedal and the BCM.

    B137 or B15 . either one will accomplish what you need OP.

    JimLee

    Well-Known Member

    That's great you know the difference. Your first reply was very vague.

    The purpose is to just disconnect the brake lights. When the brake line is disconnected with the relay, the vehicle won't even be on.

    The wiper voltage won't matter if it's 12vdc or 5vdc.

    You really could put the disconnect anywhere between the pedal and the BCM.


    Can someone explain to me how a false vacuum works?

    A "false" vacuum? I don't recognize that. Could it possibly be "imperfect" vacuum- which just means "not quite a true vacuum".

    I know it's not a true vacuum, but I want to know why this is?

    False vacuum refers to an unstable state of vacuum. Just as a radioactive nucleus may radomly decay via tunneling, as in beta decay, a much larger portion of the nuclear energy may be suddenly released in a nuclear explosion. A false vacumm may also suddenly undergo a transition to a lower energy state:

    From Dr Kaku, HYPERSPACE, PAGES 209-211

    A false vacuum is a theoretical concept in which a state of maximum symmetry exists, like right near the big bang when all forces were one, but it's at an unstable (false) higher level of energy. so it's a high energy vacuum state likely to randomly break down to a lower energy state. This breakdown is called a phase transition and corresponds to symmetry breaking. dissolution of a single unified force into many.

    (Think of a pencil balanced on it's point on a table. unstable high potential energy, high symmetry. it falls: lower energy, symmetry broken, stable until it rolls off the table.)

    "Regarding superstring theory, physicsts assume (but cannot yet prove) that the original ten dimensional universe was unstable and tunneled its way to a four and six dimensional universe"

    False vacuum transition is probably the same thing as the cosmological constant. maybe quantum tunneling can change the state of a nascent quantum environment. as just after the big bang. and power the expansion of the universe.

    The false vacuum may be the previous generation of vacuum from which the current generation of Universe arises. You can also call it the vacuum of the pre-inflational era.

    The 'false vacuum' is a reference to the notion that the cosmological constant is a function of various fields and that our universe's state, though stable over long periods of time, isn't totally stable and that there exists another semi-stable field configuration with a lower cosmological constant. maybe we'll transition to another form of dimensionality and time in a another sudden change. and we'll all disappear in the creation of the next stage universe.


    Mutual Trust

    The Johari Window is useful to gain insight into your behaviour and that of others. It provides you with information about the relationships with others and gives you the opportunity to improve yourself. By broadening the Open Space and being continuously aware of this, the mutual trust with others will only increase.

    The Blind Spot and Hidden Space are shrinking if there is more knowledge of each other and one is going to discuss matters in an open way. The Johari window is very effective and can, among others, be used for small conflicts, negotiations or lack of understanding towards each other.

    By openly asking questions and engaging with each other, the various parties can discover what the underlying ideas, opinions and motives were that led to this behaviour. The Blind Spot moves to an Open Space and people will have increased respect for each other’s opinions.


    YW Boston Blog

    Here at YW Boston, intersectionality is central to the work we do.

    We know that everyone reading this has come to follow YW Boston’s work from different entry points. Some of us hold women’s empowerment close to heart, perhaps seeking a more equitable world for ourselves or our daughters. Some of us have experienced racial discrimination personally, perhaps through generations of our family. Some of us have little experience with social justice, but seek a better understanding of inequity in Greater Boston. All of us seek change in our community, no matter how we became involved.

    Despite our shared vision, social equity work can oftentimes feel exclusionary to those who are not familiar with the lingo. Intersectionality, in particular, is a term that many people and organizations assert an importance for, but that others are unclear on. Understanding the terminology used in equity work is a useful tool for people expanding their knowledge on the issues they care about.

    If you’ve ever scratched your head when a friend, colleague, or writer has spoken of intersectionality (or you’d like to deepen your understanding of the theory), this post is for you.

    What is it and where does it come from?

    Intersectionality, n.

    The interconnected nature of social categorizations such as race, class, and gender, regarded as creating overlapping and interdependent systems of discrimination or disadvantage a theoretical approach based on such a premise. (Oxford Dictionary)

    Intersectionality is a framework for conceptualizing a person, group of people, or social problem as affected by a number of discriminations and disadvantages. It takes into account people’s overlapping identities and experiences in order to understand the complexity of prejudices they face.

    In other words, intersectional theory asserts that people are often disadvantaged by multiple sources of oppression: their race, class, gender identity, sexual orientation, religion, and other identity markers. Intersectionality recognizes that identity markers (e.g. “woman” and “black”) do not exist independently of each other, and that each informs the others, often creating a complex convergence of oppression. For instance, a black man and a white woman make .74 and .78 to a white man’s dollar, respectively. Black women, faced with multiple forms of oppression, only make .64. Understanding intersectionality is essential to combatting the interwoven prejudices people face in their daily lives.

    Kimberlé Crenshaw, law professor and social theorist, first coined the term intersectionality in her 1989 paper “Demarginalizing The Intersection Of Race And Sex: A Black Feminist Critique Of Antidiscrimination Doctrine, Feminist Theory And Antiracist Politics.” The theory emerged two decades earlier, however, when black feminists began to speak out about the white, middle-class nature of the mainstream feminist movement. Many black women found it difficult to identify with the issues of the mainstream (white) feminist movement, issues such as the pressure to be a homemaker. Black women, who often had to work in order to keep their family afloat and therefore did not have the luxury of being homemakers, did not feel as though these issues pertained to their experiences. At the same time, many black women experienced sexism while participating in the Civil Rights movement and were often shut out of leadership positions. This intersectional experience of facing racism in the feminist movement and sexism in civil rights encouraged black women to call for a feminist practice that centralized their lived experiences.

    The Combahee River Collective, a black feminist lesbian organization, released the Combahee River Collective Statement in 1978 to define and encourage black feminism. In the introduction these women state that “The synthesis of these oppressions creates the conditions of our lives. As Black women we see Black feminism as the logical political movement to combat the manifold and simultaneous oppressions that all women of color face.” They fought not only for representation in both the Civil Rights and feminist movements, but also for recognition as black women, rather than just black or just women.

    Crenshaw expanded on the Collective’s theory, stating that in order to understand the oppression of black women, it is necessary to look at the intersection of blackness and womanhood. While many who championed intersectionality early on were African American women, the theory has proven necessary to understanding a wide range of difference, including individuals’ sexual orientation, age, class, disability, and more.

    Nowadays, intersectionality is considered crucial to social equity work. Activists and community organizations are calling for and participating in more dynamic conversations about the differences in experience among people with different overlapping identities. Without an intersectional lens, events and movements that aim to address injustice towards one group may end up perpetuating systems of inequities towards other groups. Intersectionality fully informs YW Boston’s work, by encouraging nuanced conversations around inequity in Boston. It enlightens us to health disparities among women of color, provides pathways for our youth leaders to understand identity, and is crucial to the advocacy work we support.

    What can I do?

    Intersectionality may seem theoretical, but it is meant to be utilized. No matter how or when you have become involved with equity work, it is always possible to more fully integrate intersectionality into your view of these issues.

    Is your work toward social equity intersectional? Check out these tips and reflect:

    Recognize difference.

    Oftentimes, it is easier to believe and to explain to others that “all women feel” a certain way or that “LGBTQ+ people believe” some common understanding, but this does not reflect reality. We must recognize that all unique experiences of identity, and particularly ones that involve multiple overlapping oppressions, are valid.

    Do not shy away from recognizing that people experience the world differently based on their overlapping identity markers. Because of the way we have been socialized to continue feeding systems of oppression, we often feel it is rude to formally recognize others’ difference. We see this in how people are uncomfortable naming another person’s perceived race or asking for someone’s preferred pronouns. However, we must recognize these identities as a way to step beyond our assumptions that our experience is common. One way of doing so is when you attend rallies, take a look at the signs that others hold — how do they assert their identity and how does this inform the issues they care most about?

    Avoid oversimplified language.

    Once we recognize this difference, we can move away from language that seeks to define people by a singular identity. You may have heard after the Women’s March that many trans folks and allies felt uncomfortable with the vagina-centric themes of the march. Assuming that all women have vaginas or are defined by their bodies is an oversimplification that erases the experiences of those who exist beyond the gender binary. By avoiding language that assumes our own experiences are baseline, we can open ourselves up to listening to others’ points of view.

    Analyze the space you occupy.

    Becoming comfortable recognizing difference also involves recognizing when that difference is not represented in the spaces you occupy. Diversity of all kinds matter in your workplace, your activism, your community spaces, and more. If you are meeting with a local LGBTQ+ organization, is there representation of LGBTQ+ people of color? You may feel that your workplace is racially and ethnically diverse, but is it accessible to people with disabilities? Take note of the welcoming or distancing practices of the spaces you frequent.

    Seek other points of view.

    Explore the narratives of those with different interlocking identities than you. This includes surrounding yourself with others with differing interwoven identities, but keep in mind that oftentimes, even when you have a diverse group of people in an activist space, it falls on people to educate others about the oppressions they face. When these people share their experiences, take the opportunity to listen. However, do not expect people with identity markers other than your own to be there or to want to educate others. In your own time, seek out existing intersectional narratives, from your podcasts to your television. If you are unsure about a concept or want to learn more about a specific intersection of identity, Google it! This will help you be better prepared to enter into conversations with others and progress together.

    Show up.

    Do not expect people who face different systems of oppression than you to rally for causes you care about if you do not rally for theirs. As you hear about issues others face, learn about the work that is currently being done around these topics. Listen and defer to those who live with these intersectional identities each day. As you do, you will likely deepen your understanding of your own identity and the subjects you care about most.

    Check out this TED talk by Kimberlé Crenshaw (who coined the term “intersectionality”).

    On your quest for more intersectional viewpoints, check out this list of podcasts.


    Can someone explain this too me? A student made a sketch of a potential energy diagram to represent an endothermic reaction. A curve line graph is shown. The y axis of the graph has the title Potential Energy and kJ written in parenthesis. The x axis of the graph has the title Reaction Pathway. The curve begins at a higher level and ends at a slightly lower level. A broken horizontal line is shown from a point labelled X on the y axis to the point where the curve begins. Another broken horizontal line is shown from a point labeled Y on the y axis to the point where the curve ends. Explain, using complete sentences, why the diagram made by the student is correct or incorrect. Be sure to also explain what the values of X and Y represent.

    Endothermic reactions are defined as the reactions in which energy of the product is greater than the energy of the reactants. The total energy is absorbed in the form of heat and for the reaction comes out to be positive.

    Exothermic reactions are defined as the reactions in which energy of the product is lesser than the energy of the reactants. The total energy is released in the form of heat and for the reaction comes out to be negative.

    Thus as X represents the potential energy of reactants and Y represents the potential energy of products, and X> Y, thus it is an exothermic reaction with

    The diagram made by the student is correct

    Explanation: Endothermic reactions are defined as the reactions in which energy of the product is greater than the energy of the reactants. The total energy is absorbed in the form of heat and which is difference between energy of products and energy of reactants come out to be positive.

    Exothermic reactions are defined as the reactions in which energy of the product is lesser than the energy of the reactants. The total energy is released in the form of heat and which is difference between energy of products and energy of reactants comes out to be negative.

    Labeling of the parts in the diagram:

    X represents the potential energy of the reactants.

    Y represents the potential energy of the products.

    The energy diagram for an exothermic reaction should have products at a lower energy than the reactants as heat is released.


    Watch the video: Baby Its You - JoJo ft. Bow Wow Lyrics Remix (August 2022).