Characters of the twentieth century (II) The previous chapter contains the biographies of astronomers, scientists and researchers who developed their work during the twentieth century, although they were born in the nineteenth. This division was made for reasons of space, since, as is logical, the more advanced astronomical science and technology in general, the more people are professionally engaged in this field of knowledge.
Thales of Miletus and the wise men of antiquity He was called Thales of Miletus (or Thales) because he lived in the city of Miletus, between 624 BC. - 546 B.C. He was one of the "seven wise men" of antiquity. There is no information about his writings and his life is known fractionally by the references of other authors.
Antiquity and Middle Ages Various ancient peoples, such as the Egyptians, Mayans and Chinese developed interesting maps of the constellations and calendars of great use. Observatories were built in different parts of the world and many data were obtained, taking into account that they started from scratch.
Eudoxo of Cnido and the spheres Eudoxo (408-355 a.C.) was a Greek mathematician and astronomer who was born and died in Cnido, son of Esquines and disciple of Plato. His family was composed of doctors and by his influence he studied medicine, a profession he practiced for some years in Greece.
Aristotle: Philosophy and Round Earth Aristotle (384-322 BC) was a Greek philosopher and scientist who is considered, along with Plato and Socrates, as one of the most prominent thinkers of ancient Greek philosophy and possibly the most influential in the set of All western philosophy.
Aristarchus: magnitudes and distances of the Sun and the Moon Aristarchus was born in Samos - Greece - in the year 310 B.C. and died in 230 B.C. He was a student of Strato de Lampsacos, head of the peripatetic school founded by Aristotle. Years later Aristarchus would succeed Teofrasto as head of this institution between 288 and 287 a.
The Renaissance of Astronomy Astronomy took a drastic turn in the 16th century. The geocentric theory was replaced by the heliocentric system, with the Sun in the center. The invention of the telescope allowed much more precise observations that corroborated this new theory. The cultural and scientific renaissance accelerated the changes and there were many important discoveries.
Democritus of Abdera and the "atomic theory" Democritus of Abdera was a pre-Socratic Greek mathematician and philosopher who lived between the years 460 and 370 B.C. in the city of Abdera, in Thrace. Democritus, also known as "the laughing philosopher" was a disciple of Leucippus, a Greek philosopher who is credited with the foundation of atomism.
Famous people of Astronomy Astronomy is the science that deals with the study of the stars of the cosmos, especially the laws that govern its movement. In ancient times, astronomy and astrology were two inseparable sciences and, since then, astronomy has had many famous people.
Euclid, the father of geometry Euclid, also known as "the father of geometry", was a Greek mathematician and geometer who lived in Alexandria between 325 and 265 B.C. where he founded a school of mathematical studies. Of his legacy it is possible to emphasize his famous treatise of geometry, titled "The elements", one of the most important scientific works of the whole world.
Leonardo de Pisa and the Fibonacci succession Leonardo de Pisa, also known as Leonardo Bigollo or, more popularly, as Fibonacci was an important Italian mathematician who lived in Pisa between the years 1170 and 1250. His fame comes precisely from the diffusion of its Indo-Arabic numbering system that is still used today and by the well-known Fibonacci succession.
Hipparchus, the measure of the year and a catalog of stars Hipparchus of Nicea, also known as Hipparchus of Rhodes, was a Greek mathematician and astronomer, the most important of his time. Hipparchus was born in Nicea, Bitinia (today Iznik, Turkey), around 190 BC. He is considered the first scientific astronomer.
Al-Battani and the Arab astronomy of the Middle Ages Abu Abdullah Al-Battani, also known as Albategnius, was an Arab astronomer and mathematician of the Middle Ages. He was born in 858 near Battan, Harran state. He was first educated by his father, also a renowned scientist named Jabir Ibn Sin'an al-Battani.
Giovanni Battista Hodierna and deep space Giovanni Battista Hodierna was born on April 13, 1597 in Ragusa, Sicily. In his teenage years he observed three kites between 1618 and 1619, with a Galilean-type telescope. He was ordained as a Catholic cleric in Syracuse, where he taught mathematics and astronomy.
Muhammad Al-Idrisi and the Book of Roger Muhammad Al-Idrisi (Abu Abd Allah Muhammad al-Idrisi) was a hispanomusulman cartographer, geographer and traveler. Numerous contributions to the development of Earth sciences are recognized. Al-Idrisi, born in Ceuta, lived between 1100 and 1165 and spent much of his life in the court of Roger II of Sicily in Palermo, where he also developed most of his work.
Eratosthenes and the measurement of the Earth sphere He was an astronomer, historian, geographer, philosopher, poet, theater critic and mathematician. He studied in Alexandria and Athens. Around the year 255 a. C was the third director of the Alexandria Library. Eratosthenes was born in Cyrene (Libya) in 276 B.C.
Johannes Hevelius and the stellar positions Johannes Hevelius was born on January 28, 1611 in Gdansk, Poland. He studied law in Leiden in 1630 and, later, spent several years, from 1632 to 1643, traveling between Switzerland, London and Páris. In the capital of France he came into contact with several astronomers including Pierre Gassendi.
Regiomontanus and the reform of the Johann Regiomontanus calendar, whose real name was Johann Müller of Königsberg (Regiomontanus is the Latin version of Königsberg itself = "King's mountain"), was born on June 6, 1436 in Königsberg, Archbishopric of Mainz (now Germany). At age 11 he entered the University of Leipzig and at 16 he went to Vienna where he studied with Georg von Peurbach.
Christopher Scheiner and sunspots Christopher Scheiner was born in Wald, near Mindelheim, in Swabia, on July 25, 1575. He entered the society of Jesus in 1595 and then studied mathematics in Ingoldstadt, becoming a professor of matter in Dillingen. In 1610 he returned to Ingoldstadt where he taught Hebrew and mathematics, also began with his first works in scientific research.
Claudio Ptolomeo and the theory of the spheres Claudio Ptolomeo (or Ptolemy) is one of the most important characters in the history of Astronomy. Astronomer and Geographer, he proposed the geocentric system as the basis of celestial mechanics that lasted for more than 1400 years. His astronomical theories and explanations dominated scientific thinking until the 16th century.
Christian Huygens and the wave theory of light Christian Huygens was a Dutch physicist and astronomer who made great contributions in the fields of dynamics and optics. He invented the pendulum clock and made the first exposition of the wave theory of light. He discovered the rings of Saturn and Titan his major satellite.