X-ray astronomy entered a golden age in December 1999 with the success of the launch of the X-ray Multi-Mirror (XMM) satellite. Each of the three huge drums of the XMM telescopes contains 58 concentric cylindrical mirrors, which together total a surface that could rival a tennis court.
Category Historical photographs
When a person looks up on a clear night, he can only see the Moon, a couple of planets and some stars. If you are far from the glare of the city lights you will appreciate the Milky Way, a diffuse belt of light crossing the dark sky. If you want to see more, you will need a telescope.
This is the oldest manuscript that is part of a collection of works on Astronomy and Mathematics, taken from the Greek sages Autolic, Euclid, Aristarchus, Hipsicles, and Theodosius. The most curious is that of Aristarchus: About the Size and Distance of the Sun and the Moon. The image shows Proposition 13, accompanied by a few glosses, which refers to the reason for the extension of the arc that divides the illuminated part of the dark part of the Moon into an eclipse of the Moon to the diameters of the Sun and the Moon.
Stonehenge is a prehistoric ritual monument located in Wiltshire, in the Salisbury Plain, southwest of England, dated between the last periods of the Neolithic period (late stone age) and the first bronze age. It is the most famous of the megalithic monuments in England and the most important prehistoric structure in Europe.
In the second century A.D., Claudio Tolomeo proposed a model of the Universe with the Earth in the center. In the model, the Earth remains stationary while the planets, the Moon and the Sun describe complicated orbits around it. Apparently, Ptolemy was concerned that the model worked from a mathematical point of view, and not so much that it accurately described planetary motion.
This elegant manuscript of Lucretius' philosophical poem "De Rerum Natura" was copied by the Augustinian friar Girolamo di Matteo de Tauris for Pope Sixtus IV, in 1483. It is an example of interest in ancient treaties on nature by the curia Renaissance. Lucretius is the familiar name of Tito Lucretius Caro, the Roman poet of the first century before Jesus Christ, who in his great didactic poem in six volumes, De Rerum Natura (Of the nature of things), presented the theories of the Greek philosophers Democritus and Epicurus, and was the main source we have today to know the thoughts of Epicurus.
Newgrange is one of the funerary passages of the Brú na Bóinne complex, located in the County of Meath, in Ireland. It is not known for sure if it was built as a tomb, a temple or an observatory, but the truth is that Newgrange is astronomically oriented, and is an outstanding archaeological site.
Machu Picchu is the most famous Inca bastion in the Andes, located about 130 km northwest of Cuzco, in Peru. It is located at high altitude on a peak between two peaks, approximately 600 m above the Urubamba River, at 2,045 m altitude. Machu Picchu means "Old Hill". The remains of the city cover about 13 square kilometers of terraces built around a central square and connected to each other by numerous stairs.
Chichen Itza one of the great cities of the Mayan culture, located southwest of Valladolid (Mexico), in the north of the Yucatan Peninsula. The name, which means 'The mouth of the Cenotes de Itzá', derives from the Itza tribe that occupied the territory and from the two natural wells or cenotes that supplied water to the city and around which the religious life was centered and cultural.
In the 16th century, Nicolás Copernicus published a model of the Universe in which the Sun (and not the Earth) was at the center. The previous hypotheses were maintained since the second century, when Ptolemy had proposed a geocentric model that was used by astronomers and religious thinkers for many centuries.
The mysterious lines extend over a perimeter 50 kilometers long and 15 kilometers wide. The soil of the region, which is one of the driest and most desert in the world, is brown, but under this first layer another yellow is hidden. When walking, a tread leaves a lasting white spot.
Also called the Aztec Calendar because its reliefs are allusive to solar cults and astronomical knowledge of the Aztecs. This giant monolith is the result of centuries of astronomical observation of our ancestors. The Piedra del Sol is probably the oldest monolith that is preserved from pre-Hispanic culture, whose construction date was around the year 1479.
The pyramid of Jufu, generally known as the "Great Pyramid", is perhaps one of the most famous monuments in the world. Its majestic mole and the perfection of its structure have made it the center of attention of those who visit the Memphis area since time immemorial. Although it seems that astronomy in Egypt was not as detailed as in Mesopotamia, detailed observations were made of the heliaca output of apparently thirty-six stars near the celestial equator, which divided the year into equal periods (decas), of which stands out the star Sirius (Sothis), considered the main one of all, which was called Sothis.
Azarquiel or Al-Zarqali was an outstanding astronomer and geographer of Al-Andalus. He was born in Toledo in 1029, and died in Seville in 1087. The astronomical work of Azarquiel was most prolific in the astronomical field. Its production included from the elaboration of astronomical tables to theoretical treatises, including the creation of instruments related to astronomy.
Joseph von Fraunhofer was born in Straubing, Bavaria, on March 6, 1787. He studied mathematics and became an expert in optics. He died as a result of Tuberculosis in Munich on June 7, 1826. In 1823 he was a professor and physicist at the Munich Academy of Sciences. In 1812 - 1814 Fraunhofer gave himself completely to the design of achromatic lenses for telescopes, which required an exact determination of the refractive indexes of the optical glasses.
In the English town of Avebury we will find a circle of stones that has more than 5,000 years. It is located in the English county of Wiltshire, very close to the city of the same name. Like the Stonehenge megalithic complex, Avebury is considered a World Heritage Site by UNESCO, as it is one of the largest Neolithic monuments in Europe, being older than even Stonehenge.
From Prehistory to the Middle Ages The first civilizations used astronomy to accurately establish the right times for sowing and harvesting crops and for celebrations. Stonehenge Pyramids of Egypt Greek manuscript School of Athens Geocentric system Of Reum Natura Machu Picchu Stone of the Sun Nazca Lines Chichen Itza Astrolabe Heliocentric system Disc of Nebra Circle of Avebury Toledan Tables Newgrange They also managed to use astronomy to orient themselves in the long commercial crossings or in the trips.
Grote Reber, born in 1911 and died in 2002, was an American engineer and pioneer of radio astronomy. This radio and amateur radio engineer discovered his vocation after learning about the work of the American radio engineer Karl Guthe Jansky. In 1937 he began working on the construction of a strange metal plate that had a radio receiver attached to it.
Otto Hahn (1879-1968) He was born in Göttingen, Germany. In his youth he enjoyed the postwar German prosperity of the Franco-Prussian conflict, but at age 35 he had to face the First World War and at sixty with the second. Hahn experienced social and political changes as radical as those that simultaneously occurred in the field of physics and chemistry.
Loseph Louis de Lagrange (Turin, 1736 - Paris, 1813) was a French mathematician of Italian origin. The reading of a work by English astronomer Edmund Halley aroused an interest in mathematics and astronomy. In his work Miscellanea taurinensia, he obtained, among other results, a general differential equation of movement and its adaptation for the particular case of rectilinear movement and the solution to many dynamics problems by calculating variants.
Albert Einstein (1879-1955) is considered by many people as the best astrophysicist and the most relevant person of the twentieth century. Here we see him at the Swiss patent office, where he made many of his definitions. Many of Einstein's visionary scientific contributions include the equivalence between mass and energy (E = mc ^ 2), how the maximum limit of the speed of light affects time and space measurements (special relativity), and a theory of the most precise gravity, based on simple geometric concepts (general relativity).